Turmeric, Cinnamon & Ginger Honey

(3 customer reviews)

GBP10.00

Our best-selling premium, pure linden and canola honey blend have been infused with traditional herbs well known to most users.

Our best-selling premium, pure linden and canola honey blend has been infused with traditional herbs that are well-known to most users. This ApiBotanicals™ functional honey/herb maceration shows outstanding results, as seen in the testimonials, but legally, we are unable to mention any medical benefits.

Weight 410 g

Tasting Notes

A complex maceration in a creamy, raw Linden/Canola honey blend.

Benefits

We are legally unable to list any of the medical benefits of this maceration – please contact us for a consultation to find out more.

Ingredients

Linden honey & Canola honey blended with: Turmeric | Ginger | Cinnamon

Certified Origins

Hungarian flag denoting that one or more ingredient was ethically sourced from Hungary.Chinese flagIndian flag

Macerated and packaged in Shropshire, England.

Clinical References

Clinical evidence of the ingredients found in this product. These are public domain references and do not relate directly to our product.

  • Abdel Fattah, E. A., Hashem, H. E., Ahmed, F. A., Ghallab, M. A., Varga, I., and Polak, S. Prophylactic role of curcumin against cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity: Histological and immunohistological study. Gen.Physiol Biophys. 2010;29(1):85-94.
  • Abdel Halim, A. S. Efficacy of Zingiber officinale on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of Musca domestica and Anopheles pharoensis. J Egypt Soc.Parasitol. 2008;38(2):385-392.
  • Abdel-Aziz, H., Nahrstedt, A., Petereit, F., Windeck, T., Ploch, M., and Verspohl, E. J. 5-HT3 receptor blocking activity of arylalkanes isolated from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale. Planta Med 2005;71(7):609-616.
  • Abdel-Aziz, H., Windeck, T., Ploch, M., and Verspohl, E. J. Mode of action of gingerols and shogaols on 5-HT3 receptors: binding studies, cation uptake by the receptor channel and contraction of isolated guinea-pig ileum. Eur.J Pharmacol. 1-13-2006;530(1-2):136-143.
  • Abebe W. Herbal medication: potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2002;27:391-401.
  • Abidi A, Gupta S, Agarwal M, Bhalla HL, Saluja M. Evaluation of Efficacy of Curcumin as an Add-on therapy in Patients of Bronchial Asthma. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8(8):HC19-24.
  • Abraham, S. K., Sarma, L., and Kesavan, P. C. Protective effects of chlorogenic acid, curcumin and beta-carotene against gamma-radiation-induced in vivo chromosomal damage. Mutat.Res 1993;303(3):109-112.
  • Adhvaryu, M. R., Reddy, N., and Vakharia, B. C. Prevention of hepatotoxicity due to anti tuberculosis treatment: a novel integrative approach. World J Gastroenterol. 8-14-2008;14(30):4753-4762.
  • Adib Rad H, Basirat Z, Bakouei F, et al. Effect of Ginger and Novafen on menstrual pain: A cross-over trial. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Dec;57(6):806-809. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2018.10.006.
  • Admani S, Hill H, Jacob SE. Cinnamon Sugar Scrub Dermatitis: “Natural” Is Not Always Best. Pediatr Dermatol. 2017;34(1):e42-e43.
  • Aeschbach R, Loliger J, Scott BC. Antioxidant actions of thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol, zingerone and hydroxytyrosol. Food Chem Toxicol 1994;32:31-6.
  • Agarwal, K. A., Tripathi, C. D., Agarwal, B. B., and Saluja, S. Efficacy of turmeric (curcumin) in pain and postoperative fatigue after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. Surg Endosc. 6-14-2011;
  • Agrawal, D. K., Saikia, D., Tiwari, R., Ojha, S., Shanker, K., Kumar, J. K., Gupta, A. K., Tandon, S., Negi, A. S., and Khanuja, S. P. Demethoxycurcumin and its semisynthetic analogues as antitubercular agents. Planta Med. 2008;74(15):1828-1831.
  • Agricultural Research Service. Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Available at: www.ars-grin.gov/duke/.
  • Ahad A, Raish M, Abdelrahman IA, et al. Changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of losartan in experimental diseased rats treated with Curcuma longa and Lepidium sativum. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2022;16(1):33.
  • Ahad A, Raish M, Bin Jardan YA, Alam MA, Al-Mohizea AM, Al-Jenoobi FI. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Zingiber officinale on the antihypertensive activity and pharmacokinetic of losartan in hypertensive rats. Xenobiotica. 2020:1-11.
  • Ahmadi R, Salari S, Sharifi MD, et al. Oral nano-curcumin formulation efficacy in the management of mild to moderate outpatient COVID-19: A randomized triple-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Food Sci Nutr 2021;9(8):4068-4075.
  • Ahmed, T. and Gilani, A. H. Inhibitory effect of curcuminoids on acetylcholinesterase activity and attenuation of scopolamine-induced amnesia may explain medicinal use of turmeric in Alzheimer’s disease. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 2009;91(4):554-559.
  • Ahmed, T., Enam, S. A., and Gilani, A. H. Curcuminoids enhance memory in an amyloid-infused rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience 6-9-2010;
  • Ahmed, T., Gilani, A. H., Hosseinmardi, N., Semnanian, S., Enam, S. A., and Fathollahi, Y. Curcuminoids rescue long-term potentiation impaired by amyloid peptide in rat hippocampal slices. Synapse 2011;65(7):572-582.
  • Ahui, M. L., Champy, P., Ramadan, A., Pham, Van L., Araujo, L., Brou, Andre K., Diem, S., Damotte, D., Kati-Coulibaly, S., Offoumou, M. A., Dy, M., Thieblemont, N., and Herbelin, A. Ginger prevents Th2-mediated immune responses in a mouse model of airway inflammation. Int Immunopharmacol. 12-10-2008;8(12):1626-1632.
  • Ainehchi N, Khaki A, Farshbaf-Khalili A, Hammadeh M, Ouladsahebmadarek E. The Effectiveness of Herbal Mixture Supplements with and without Clomiphene Citrate in Comparison to Clomiphene Citrate on Serum Antioxidants and Glycemic Biomarkers in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Willing to be Pregnant: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Biomolecules. 2019;9(6):215.
  • Akbarzadeh E, Heydari M, Atarzadeh F, Jaladat AM. Chronic dysuria following ginger (Zingiber officinale) use: a case report. Galen Med J 2018;7:e1086.
  • Akhani SP, Vishwakarma SL, Goyal RK. Anti-diabetic activity of Zingiber officinale in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2004;56:101-5.
  • Aktan, F., Henness, S., Tran, V. H., Duke, C. C., Roufogalis, B. D., and Ammit, A. J. Gingerol metabolite and a synthetic analogue Capsarol inhibit macrophage NF-kappaB-mediated iNOS gene expression and enzyme activity. Planta Med 2006;72(8):727-734.
  • al Yahya, M. A., Rafatullah, S., Mossa, J. S., Ageel, A. M., Parmar, N. S., and Tariq, M. Gastroprotective activity of ginger zingiber officinale rosc., in albino rats. Am.J Chin Med. 1989;17(1-2):51-56.
  • Al Zanbagi, N. A. and Zelai, N. T. Two methods for attenuating Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites RH strain by using ethanol extract of Curcuma longa. J Egypt Soc.Parasitol. 2008;38(3):965-976.
  • Al-Amin ZM, Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, et al. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Br J Nutr. 2006;96:660-6.
  • Al-Karawi D, Al Mamoori DA, Tayyar Y. The role of curcumin administration in patients with major depressive disorder: Mini meta-analysis of clinical trials. Phytother Res. 2016;30(2):175-83.
  • Al-Maweri SA, Alhajj MN, Deshisha EA, et al. Curcumin mouthwashes versus chlorhexidine in controlling plaque and gingivitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Dent Hyg. 2021.
  • Alam MA, Bin Jardan YA, Alzenaidy B, et al. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Zingiber officinale on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of amlodipine. J Pharm Pharmacol 2021;73(9):1151-60.
  • Alam MA, Bin Jardan YA, Raish M, Al-Mohizea AM, Ahad A, Al-Jenoobi FI. Herb-drug interaction: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-hypertensive drug amlodipine besylate in presence of lepidium sativum and curcuma longa. Xenobiotica 2022;1-9.
  • Ali, B. H., Al Wabel, N., Mahmoud, O., Mousa, H. M., and Hashad, M. Curcumin has a palliative action on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol 2005;19(4):473-477.
  • Alizadeh-Navaei R, Roozbeh F, Saravi M, et al. Investigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels. A double blind controlled clinical trial. Saudi Med J. 2008;29:1280-4.
  • Allam, G. Immunomodulatory effects of curcumin treatment on murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Immunobiology 2009;214(8):712-727.
  • Allegri P, Rosa R, Masala A, et al. Clinical effectiveness of a new oral curcumin formulation in acute non-infectious uveitic macular edema: a 12-month observational study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2022;26(1):46-53.
  • Allen, S. W., Mueller, L., Williams, S. N., Quattrochi, L. C., and Raucy, J. The use of a high-volume screening procedure to assess the effects of dietary flavonoids on human cyp1a1 expression. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001;29(8):1074-1079.
  • Alqasoumi S. Anti-secretagogue and antiulcer effects of ‘cinnamon’ Cinnamomum zeylanicum in rats. J Pharmacog Phytother 2012;4:53-61.
  • Altman RD, Marcussen KC. Effects of ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:2531-38.
  • Altobelli E, Angeletti PM, Marziliano C, Mastrodomenico M, Giuliani AR, Petrocelli R. Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin on glycemic and lipid profile in uncomplicated type 2 diabetes – a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial. Nutrients 2021;13(2):404. doi: 10.3390/nu13020404.
  • Alves, L. V., Temporal, R. M., Cysne-Finkelstein, L., and Leon, L. L. Efficacy of a diarylheptanoid derivative against Leishmania amazonensis. Mem.Inst.Oswaldo Cruz 2003;98(4):553-555.
  • Alzoreky, N. S. and Nakahara, K. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in Asia. Int J Food Microbiol. 2-15-2003;80(3):223-230.
  • Amalraj A, Varma K, Jacob J, et al. A novel highly bioavailable curcumin formulation improves symptoms and diagnostic indicators in rheumatoid arthritis patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-dose, three-arm, and parallel-group study. J Med Food. 2017;20(10):1022-1030.
  • Amin F, Islam N, Anila N, Gilani AH. Clinical efficacy of the co-administration of Turmeric and Black seeds (Kalongi) in metabolic syndrome – a double blind randomized controlled trial – TAK-MetS trial. Complement Ther Med. 2015;23(2):165-74.
  • Amorndoljai P, Taneepanichskul S, Niempoog S, Nimmannit U. A Comparative of Ginger Extract in Nanostructure Lipid Carrier (NLC) and 1% Diclofenac Gel for Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis (OA). J Med Assoc Thai. 2017;100(4):447-56.
  • Amorndoljai P, Taneepanichskul S, Niempoog S, Nimmannit U. Improving of Knee Osteoarthritic Symptom by the Local Application of Ginger Extract Nanoparticles: A Preliminary Report with Short Term Follow-Up. J Med Assoc Thai. 2015;98(9):871-7.
  • Ampasavate, C., Sotanaphun, U., Phattanawasin, P., and Piyapolrungroj, N. Effects of Curcuma spp. on P-glycoprotein function. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(7):506-512.
  • Anderson RA, Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, et al. Isolation and Characterization of Polyphenol Type-A Polymers from Cinnamon with Insulin-like Biological Activity. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:65-70.
  • Annabi, B.; Palm, F. – Pharmacological Research. 2009 Dec;60(6):454-9. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.08.014. Epub 2009 Aug 21. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of Tilia tomentosa honey in mice.
  • Anon. Case problem: presenting conventional and complementary approaches for relieving nausea in a breast cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy. J Am Diet Assoc 2000;100:257-9.
  • Ansari M, Porouhan P, Mohammadianpanah M, et al. Efficacy of ginger in control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(8):3877-80.
  • Ansari, M. N., Bhandari, U., and Pillai, K. K. Ethanolic Zingiber officinale R. extract pretreatment alleviates isoproterenol-induced oxidative myocardial necrosis in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2006;44(11):892-897.
  • Antony B, Kizhakedath R Benny M Kuruvilla BT. Clinical Evaluation of a herbal product (Rhulief) in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Abstract 316. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2011;19(S1):S145-S146.
  • Antony S, Kuttan R, Kuttan G. Immunomodulatory activity of curcumin. Immunol Invest 1999;28:291-303..
  • Apariman S, Ratchanon S, Wiriyasirivej B. Effectiveness of ginger for prevention of nausea and vomiting after gynecological laparoscopy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89:2003-9.
  • Appiah-Opong, R., Commandeur, J. N., Vugt-Lussenburg, B., and Vermeulen, N. P. Inhibition of human recombinant cytochrome P450s by curcumin and curcumin decomposition products. Toxicology 6-3-2007;235(1-2):83-91.
  • Arabi SM, Bahari H, Hamidipor S, et al. The effects of curcumin-containing supplements on inflammatory biomarkers in hemodialysis patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytother Res 2022;36(12):4361-4370.
  • Arabnezhad L, Mohammadifard M, Rahmani L, Majidi Z, Ferns GA, Bahrami A. Effects of curcumin supplementation on vitamin D levels in women with premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled study. BMC Complement Med Ther 2022;22(1):19.
  • Araujo CC, Leon LL. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2001;96:723-8.
  • Araya-Quintanilla F, Gutierrez-Espinoza H, Munoz-Yanez MJ, Sanchez-Montoya U, Lopez-Jeldes J. Effectiveness of ginger on pain and function in knee osteoarthritis: A PRISMA systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain Physician. 2020;23(2):E151-E161.
  • Arentz S, Smith CA, Abbott J, Fahey P, Cheema BS, Bensoussan A. Combined Lifestyle and Herbal Medicine in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Randomized Controlled Trial. Phytother Res. 2017 Sep;31(9):1330-1340.
  • Arfeen Z, Owen H, Plummer JL, et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesth Intensive Care 1995;23:449-52.
  • Argento A, Tiraferri E, Marzaloni M. [Oral anticoagulants and medicinal plants. An emerging interaction]. Ann Ital Med Int. 2000;15:139-43.
  • Arslan M, Ozdemir L. Oral intake of ginger for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among women with breast cancer. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2015;19(5):E92-7.
  • Arun, N. and Nalini, N. Efficacy of turmeric on blood sugar and polyol pathway in diabetic albino rats. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 2002;57(1):41-52.
  • Aryaeian N, Mahmoudi M, Shahram F, Poursani S, Jamshidi F, Tavakoli H. The effect of ginger supplementation on IL2, TNFα, and IL1β cytokines gene expression levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized controlled trial. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2019;33:154.
  • Aryaeian N, Shahram F, Mahmoudi M, et al. The effect of ginger supplementation on some immunity and inflammation intermediate genes expression in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Gene 2019;698:179-85.
  • Arzallus T, Izagirre A, Castiella A, Torrente S, Garmendia M, Zapata EM. Drug induced autoimmune hepatitis after turmeric intake. Gastroenterol Hepatol 2023.
  • Asadirad A, Nashibi R, Khodadadi A, et al. Antiinflammatory potential of nano-curcumin as an alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of mild-to-moderate hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res 2022;36(2):1023-1031.
  • Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Khalili L. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Improving Blood Lipids and Body Weight; A Systematic Review and Multivariate Meta-analysis of Clinical Trials. Curr Pharm Des 2022.
  • Ashok, P. and Meenakshi, B. Contraceptive effect of Curcuma longa (L.) in male albino rat. Asian J Androl 2004;6(1):71-74.
  • Ashraf H, Heydari M, Shams M, Zarshenas MM, Tavakoli A, Sayadi M. Efficacy of ginger supplementation in relieving persistent hypothyroid symptoms in patients with controlled primary hypothyroidism: a pilot randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022;2022:5456855.
  • Ashtary-Larky D, Rezaei Kelishadi M, Bagheri R, et al. The Effects of Nano-Curcumin Supplementation on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: A GRADE-Assessed Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials. Antioxidants (Basel) 2021;10(7):1015.
  • Askari G, Sahebkar A, Soleimani D, et al. The efficacy of curcumin-piperine co-supplementation on clinical symptoms, duration, severity, and inflammatory factors in COVID-19 outpatients: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Trials 2022;23(1):472.
  • Asnani, V. M. and Verma, R. J. Antioxidative effect of rhizome of Zinziber officinale on paraben induced lipid peroxidation: an in vitro study. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2007;64(1):35-37.
  • Asnani, V. M. and Verma, R. J. Ameliorative effects of ginger extract on paraben-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver of mice. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2009;66(3):225-228.
  • Azimi P, Ghiasvand R Feizi A, Hariri M, Abbasi B. Effects of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron, and ginger consumption on markers of glycemic control, lipid profile, oxidative stress, and inflammation in type 2 diabetes. Rev Diabet Stud. 2014 Fall-Winter;11(3-4):258-66.
  • Azimi P, Ghiasvand R, Feizi A, et al. Effect of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron and ginger consumption on blood pressure and a marker of endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Blood Press. 2016;25(3):133-40.
  • Azuine, M. A. and Bhide, S. V. Chemopreventive effect of turmeric against stomach and skin tumors induced by chemical carcinogens in Swiss mice. Nutr.Cancer 1992;17(1):77-83.
  • Babu, P. S. and Srinivasan, K. Hypolipidemic action of curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mol.Cell Biochem. 1997;166(1-2):169-175.
  • Babu, P. S. and Srinivasan, K. Influence of dietary curcumin and cholesterol on the progression of experimentally induced diabetes in albino rat. Mol.Cell Biochem. 11-8-1995;152(1):13-21.
  • Backon J. Ginger as an antiemetic: possible side effects due to its thromboxane synthetase activity. Anaesthesia. 1991;46(8):705-6..
  • Backon J. Ginger in preventing nausea and vomiting of pregnancy; a caveat due to its thromboxane synthetase activity and effect on testosterone binding. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1991;42:163-4.
  • Badooei F, Imani E, Hosseini-Teshnizi S, Banar M, Memarzade M. Comparison of the effect of ginger and aloe vera mouthwashes on xerostomia in patients with type 2 diabetes: A clinical trial, triple-blind. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2021;26(4):e408-e413.
  • Baghdasaryan, A., Claudel, T., Kosters, A., Gumhold, J., Silbert, D., Thuringer, A., Leski, K., Fickert, P., Karpen, S. J., and Trauner, M. Curcumin improves sclerosing cholangitis in Mdr2-/- mice by inhibition of cholangiocyte inflammatory response and portal myofibroblast proliferation. Gut 2010;59(4):521-530.
  • Bahraini P, Rajabi M, Mansouri P, Sarafian G, Chalangari R, Azizian Z. Turmeric tone as a treatment in scalp psoriasis: a randomized placebo-control clinical trial. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2018 Jun;17(3):461-466.
  • Bahrami A, Zarban A, Rezapour H, Agha Amini Fashami A, Ferns GA. Effects of curcumin on menstrual pattern, premenstrual syndrome, and dysmenorrhea: A triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res 2021.
  • Bakhshi M, Mahboubi A, Jaafari MR, Ebrahimi F, Tofangchiha M, Alizadeh A. Comparative efficacy of 1% curcumin nanomicelle gel and 2% curcumin gel for treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: A double-blind randomized clinical trial. J Evid Based Dent Pract 2022;22(2):101708.
  • Balasubramanian, K. Molecular orbital basis for yellow curry spice curcumin’s prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. J Agric.Food Chem. 5-17-2006;54(10):3512-3520.
  • Baliga, M. S., Jagetia, G. C., Rao, S. K., and Babu, K. Evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain spices in vitro: a preliminary study. Nahrung 2003;47(4):261-264.
  • Bankowski S, Petr M, Rozpara M, Sadowska-Krepa E. Effect of 6-week curcumin supplementation on aerobic capacity, antioxidant status and sirtuin 3 level in middle-aged amateur long-distance runners. Redox Rep 2022;27(1):186-192.
  • Bansal, S. and Chhibber, S. Curcumin alone and in combination with augmentin protects against pulmonary inflammation and acute lung injury generated during Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced lung infection in BALB/c mice. J Med.Microbiol. 2010;59(Pt 4):429-437.
  • Bao, H. Y., Chen, R. H., Huang, S. M., Zhang, A. H., Guo, M., Fei, L., and Pan, X. Q. [Effect of curcumin on extracellular matrix accumulation in the glomeruli in nephrotoxic sera nephritis rats]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Xue.Bao. 2004;2(1):30-32.
  • Bargagli, E; Bodi, V., et al. Inflammation. 2011 Mar;35(2):525-35. doi: 10.1007/s10753-010-9267-5. Epub 2010 Aug 11. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Tilia tomentosa honey.
  • Bartels EM, Folmer VN, Bliddal H, et al. Efficacy and safety of ginger in osteoarthritis patients: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015;23(1):13-21.
  • Bas, M., Tugcu, V., Kemahli, E., Ozbek, E., Uhri, M., Altug, T., and Tasci, A. I. Curcumin prevents shock-wave lithotripsy-induced renal injury through inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-B and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in rats. Urol.Res 2009;37(3):159-164.
  • Bateni Z, Rahimi HR, Hedayati M, Afsharian S, Goudarzi R, Sohrab G. The effects of nano-curcumin supplementation on glycemic control, blood pressure, lipid profile, and insulin resistance in patients with the metabolic syndrome: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2021;35(7):3945-3953.
  • Baum L, Lam CW, Cheung SK, et al. Six-month randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot clinical trial of curcumin in patients with Alzheimer disease (letter). J Clin Psychopharmacol 2008;28:110-3.
  • Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Dugall M, et al. Efficacy and safety of Meriva, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients. Alt Med Rev 2010:15:337-4.
  • Belcaro G, Dugall M, Luzzi R, et al. Phytoproflex: supplementary management of osteoarthritis: a supplement registry. Minerva Med. 2018 Apr;109(2):88-94.
  • Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Dugall, M., Pellegrini, L., Ledda, A., Grossi, M. G., Togni, S., and Appendino, G. Product-evaluation registry of Meriva(R), a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, for the complementary management of osteoarthritis. Panminerva Med 2010;52(2 Suppl 1):55-62.
  • Benny, M and Antony B. Bioavailability of Biocurcumax (BCM – 095). Spice India 2006;11-15.
  • Bhandari U, Kanojia R, Pillai KK. Effect of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale on dyslipidaemia in diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;97:227-30.
  • Bhandari, U., Sharma, J. N., and Zafar, R. The protective action of ethanolic ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in cholesterol fed rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;61(2):167-171.
  • Bhargava R, Chasen M, Elten M, MacDonald N. The effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in patients with advanced cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2019.
  • Biswas, S. K., McClure, D., Jimenez, L. A., Megson, I. L., and Rahman, I. Curcumin induces glutathione biosynthesis and inhibits NF-kappaB activation and interleukin-8 release in alveolar epithelial cells: mechanism of free radical scavenging activity. Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 2005;7(1-2):32-41.
  • Black CD, Herring MP, Hurley DJ, O’Connor PJ. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces muscle pain caused by eccentric exercise. J Pain 2010;11:894-903.
  • Black CD, O’Connor PJ. Acute effects of dietary ginger on muscle pain induced by eccentric exercise. Phytother Res 2010;24:1620-6.
  • Black CD, O’Connor PJ. Acute effects of dietary ginger on quadriceps muscle pain during moderate-intensity cycling exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2008;18:653-64.
  • Blank, I., Fischer, KH. & Grosch, W. Intensive neutral odourants of linden honey Differences from honeys of other botanical origin. Z Lebensm Unters Forch 189, 426–433 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01028316
  • Bliddal H, Rosetzsky A, Schlichting P, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and ibuprofen in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000;8:9-12.
  • Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, eds. Herbal Medicine Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications, 2000.
  • Bone ME, Wilkinson DJ, Young JR, et al. Ginger root-a new antiemetic. The effect of ginger root on postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynaecological surgery. Anaesthesia 1990;45:669-71.
  • Borrelli F, Capasso R, Aviello G, et al. Effectiveness and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:849-56.
  • Bossi P, Cortinovis D, Fatigoni S, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of a ginger extract in the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients receiving high-dose cisplatin. Ann Oncol. 2017;28(10):2547-2551.
  • Bourne, K. Z., Bourne, N., Reising, S. F., and Stanberry, L. R. Plant products as topical microbicide candidates: assessment of in vitro and in vivo activity against herpes simplex virus type 2. Antiviral Res 1999;42(3):219-226.
  • Braga Tibaes JR, Martins LB, Rodrigues AMDS, Amaral MHA, Teixeira AL, Ferreira AVM. Ginger supplementation does not increase energy expenditure in female adults. Nutrition 2022;103-104:111803.
  • Brancheau D, Patel B, Zughaib M. Do cinnamon supplements cause acute hepatitis? Am J Case Rep 2015;16:250-4.
  • Brockwell C, Ampikaipakan S, Sexton DW, Price D, Freeman D, Thomas M, Ali M, Wilson AM. Adjunctive treatment with oral AKL1, a botanical nutraceutical, in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2014;9:715-21.
  • Bundy, R., Walker, A. F., Middleton, R. W., and Booth, J. Turmeric extract may improve irritable bowel syndrome symptomology in otherwise healthy adults: a pilot study. J Altern.Complement Med. 2004;10(6):1015-1018.
  • Burgos-Morón E, Calderón-Montaño JM, Salvador J, Robles A, López-Lázaro M. The dark side of curcumin. Int J Cancer. 2010;126(7):1771-5.
  • Cady RK, Goldstein J, Nett R, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of sublingual feverfew and ginger (LipiGesic M) in the treatment of migraine. Headache 2011;51:1078-86.
  • Cady RK, Schreiber CP, Beach ME, et al. Gelstat Migraine (sublingually administered feverfew and ginger compound) for acute treatment of migraine when administered during the mild pain phase. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:I65-69.
  • Calaf GM, Echiburú-Chau C, Wen G, Balajee AS, Roy D. Effect of curcumin on irradiated and estrogen-transformed human breast cell lines. Int J Oncol. 2012;40(2):436-42.
  • Calderén-Pérez L, Llaurad E, Companys J, et al. Acute effects of turmeric extracts on knee joint pain: a pilot, randomized controlled trial. J Med Food. 2020. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2020.0074. Online ahead of print.
  • Calvert I. Ginger: an essential oil for shortening labour? Pract Midwife. 2005;8:30-4.
  • Calzà, L.; Grillon, C. – Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2013;2013:170878. doi: 10.1155/2013/170878. Epub 2013 Aug 12. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Sleep and Sleep Disorders: Implications for Treatment.
  • Carroll RE, Benya RV, Turgeon DK, et al. Phase IIa clinical trial of curcumin for the prevention of colorectal neoplasia. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2011;4:354-64.
  • Cashman, J. R., Ghirmai, S., Abel, K. J., and Fiala, M. Immune defects in Alzheimer’s disease: new medications development. BMC.Neurosci. 2008;9 Suppl 2:S13.
  • Cekmen, M., Ilbey, Y. O., Ozbek, E., Simsek, A., Somay, A., and Ersoz, C. Curcumin prevents oxidative renal damage induced by acetaminophen in rats. Food Chem.Toxicol 2009;47(7):1480-1484.
  • Chainani-Wu, N. Safety and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin: A Component of Tumeric (Curcuma longa). J Altern.Complement Med. 2003;9(1):161-168.
  • Chainani-Wu, N., Madden, E., Lozada-Nur, F., and Silverman S Jr. High-dose curcuminoids are efficacious in the reduction in symptoms and signs of oral lichen planus. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012;66(5):752-760.
  • Chaiworramukkul A, Seetalarom K, Saichamchan S, Prasongsook N. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized phase IIa study: Evaluating the effect of curcumin for treatment of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome in solid cancer patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2022;23(7):2333-2340.
  • Chaiyakunapruk N, Kitikannakorn N, Nathisuwan S, et al. The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;194:95-9.
  • Chan, M. M., Ho, C. T., and Huang, H. I. Effects of three dietary phytochemicals from tea, rosemary and turmeric on inflammation-induced nitrite production. Cancer Lett. 9-4-1995;96(1):23-29.
  • Chand S, Hair C, Beswick L. A rare case of turmeric-induced hepatotoxicity. Intern Med J. 2020;50(2):258-259.
  • Chandran B, Goel A. A randomized, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Phytother Res 2012;26:1719-25.
  • Chang WP, Peng YX. Does the Oral Administration of Ginger Reduce Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting?: A Meta-analysis of 10 Randomized Controlled Trials. Cancer Nurs. 2019;42(6):E14-E23.
  • Chatterjee, S., Variyar, P. S., and Sharma, A. Stability of lipid constituents in radiation processed fenugreek seeds and turmeric: role of phenolic antioxidants. J Agric.Food Chem. 10-14-2009;57(19):9226-9233.
  • Chen, D., Nie, M., Fan, M. W., and Bian, Z. Anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin in macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Pharmacology 2008;82(4):264-269.
  • Chen, H. W. and Huang, H. C. Effect of curcumin on cell cycle progression and apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. Br.J Pharmacol. 1998;124(6):1029-1040.
  • Chen, K. H., Chao, D., Liu, C. F., Chen, C. F., and Wang, D. Curcumin attenuates airway hyperreactivity induced by ischemia-reperfusion of the pancreas in rats. Transplant.Proc. 2010;42(3):744-747.
  • Chen, Z., Zhu, L., Song, T., Chen, J., and Guo, Z. A novel curcumin assay with the metal ion Cu (II) as a simple probe by resonance light scattering technique. Spectrochim.Acta A Mol.Biomol.Spectrosc. 2009;72(3):518-522.
  • Cheng, A. L., Hsu, C. H., Lin, J. K., Hsu, M. M., Ho, Y. F., Shen, T. S., Ko, J. Y., Lin, J. T., Lin, B. R., Ming-Shiang, W., Yu, H. S., Jee, S. H., Chen, G. S., Chen, T. M., Chen, C. A., Lai, M. K., Pu, Y. S., Pan, M. H., Wang, Y. J., Tsai, C. C., and Hsieh, C. Y. Phase I clinical trial of curcumin, a chemopreventive agent, in patients with high-risk or pre-malignant lesions. Anticancer Res 2001;21(4B):2895-2900.
  • Chiang HM, Chao PD, Hsiu SL, et al. Ginger significantly decreased the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine in rats. Am J Chin Med. 2006;34:845-55.
  • Chien YJ, Chang CY, Wu MY, Chen CH, Horng YS, Wu HC. Effects of curcumin on glycemic control and lipid profile in polycystic ovary syndrome: Systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. Nutrients. 2021;13(2):684.
  • Chirsanova, Aurica; Capcanari, Tatiana; Boistean, Alina – Quality Assessment of Honey in Three Different Geographical Areas from Republic of Moldova. Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol.12 No.10, October 27, 2021
  • Chitre D, Nadkarni S, Jagtap N, et al. Phase III randomized clinical trial of BV-4051, an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation in moderate SARS-CoV-2 infections and its impact on inflammatory biomarkers. Phytother Res 2022.
  • Chittumma P, Kaewkiattikun K, Wiriyasiriwach B. Comparison of the effectiveness of ginger and vitamin B6 for treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. J Med Assoc Thai 2007;90:15-20.
  • Chiu, J., Khan, Z. A., Farhangkhoee, H., and Chakrabarti, S. Curcumin prevents diabetes-associated abnormalities in the kidneys by inhibiting p300 and nuclear factor-kappaB. Nutrition 2009;25(9):964-972.
  • Choi HK, Jung GW, Moon KH, et al. Clinical study of SS-Cream in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation. Urology 2000;55:257-61.
  • Choi JS, Han JY, Ahn HK, et al. Assessment of fetal and neonatal outcomes in the offspring of women who had been treated with dried ginger (Zingiberis rhizoma siccus) for a variety of illnesses during pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2015;35(2):125-30.
  • Choi, B. H., Kim, C. G., Lim, Y., Shin, S. Y., and Lee, Y. H. Curcumin down-regulates the multidrug-resistance mdr1b gene by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/NF kappa B pathway. Cancer Lett. 1-18-2008;259(1):111-118.
  • Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Sarmukkaddam S, Venugopalan A, Narsimulu G, Handa R, Sumantran V, Raut A, Bichile L, Joshi K, Patwardhan B. Ayurvedic medicine offers a good alternative to glucosamine and celecoxib in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled equivalence drug trial. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2013;52(8):1408-17.
  • Chopra, A., Lavin, P., Patwardhan, B., and Chitre, D. A 32-week randomized, placebo-controlled clinical evaluation of RA-11, an Ayurvedic drug, on osteoarthritis of the knees. J Clin Rheumatol. 2004;10(5):236-245.
  • Choudhary, D., Chandra, D., and Kale, R. K. Modulation of radioresponse of glyoxalase system by curcumin. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;64(1):1-7.
  • Chuengsamarn, S., Rattanamongkolgul, S., Luechapudiporn, R., Phisalaphong, C., and Jirawatnotai, S. Curcumin extract for prevention of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2012;35(11):2121-2127.
  • Chularisi MU, Picha P, Rienkijkan M, Preechanukool K. The cytotoxic effect of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts from Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum nees) barks on tumor cells in vitro. Int J Crude Drug Res 1984;22:177-80.
  • Chung, S. W., Kim, M. K., Chung, J. H., Kim, D. H., Choi, J. S., Anton, S., Seo, A. Y., Park, K. Y., Yokozawa, T., Rhee, S. H., Yu, B. P., and Chung, H. Y. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activation by a short-term feeding of zingerone in aged rats. J Med Food 2009;12(2):345-350.
  • Ciftci, O., Ozdemir, I., Tanyildizi, S., Yildiz, S., and Oguzturk, H. Antioxidative effects of curcumin, beta-myrcene and 1,8-cineole against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in rats liver. Toxicol Ind Health 2011;27(5):447-453.
  • Ciolino, H. P., Daschner, P. J., Wang, T. T., and Yeh, G. C. Effect of curcumin on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and cytochrome P450 1A1 in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Biochem.Pharmacol. 7-15-1998;56(2):197-206.
  • Concalves JL, Lopes RC, Oliveira DB, et al. In vitro anti-rotavirus activity of some medicinal plants used in Brazil against diarrhea. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;99(3):403-7.
  • Conrozier T, Mathieu P, Bonjean M, Marc JF, Renevier JL, Balblanc JC. A complex of three natural anti-inflammatory agents provides relief of osteoarthritis pain. Altern Ther Health Med 2014 Winter;20 Suppl 1:32-7.
  • Corren, J., Lemay, M., Lin, Y., Rozga, L., and Randolph, R. K. Clinical and biochemical effects of a combination botanical product (ClearGuard) for allergy: a pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Nutr.J 2008;7:20.
  • Crichton M, Marshall S, Marx W, McCarthy AL, Isenring E. Efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in ameliorating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and chemotherapy-related outcomes: A systematic review update and meta-analysis. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2019;119(12):2055-2068.
  • Cruz-Correa M, Hylind LM, Marrero JH, et al. Efficacy and safety of curcumin in treatment of intestinal adenomas in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Gastroenterology. 2018 May 23. Pii:S0016-5085(18)34564-5. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Cuevas-Glory, L. F.; Pino, J. A.; Santiago, L. S.; Sauri-Duch, E. – Food Chemistry. 2007 Nov 15;105(2):761-70. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.048. Epub 2007 Mar 24. Radical scavenging capacity of honey from different floral sources.
  • Cui, L., Miao, J., and Cui, L. Cytotoxic effect of curcumin on malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: inhibition of histone acetylation and generation of reactive oxygen species. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 2007;51(2):488-494.
  • Curcumin prevents and reverses murine cardiac hypertrophy. J Clin Invest 2009;119(7):2113.
  • Cwikla, C., Schmidt, K., Matthias, A., Bone, K. M., Lehmann, R., and Tiralongo, E. Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni. Phytother.Res 2010;24(5):649-656.
  • Dabaghzadeh F, Khalili H, Dashti-Khavidaki S, Abbasian L, Moeinifard A. Ginger for prevention of antiretroviral-induced nausea and vomiting: a randomized clinical trial. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2014;13(7):859-66.
  • Daily JW, Zhang X, Kim da S, et al. Efficacy of Ginger for Alleviating the Symptoms of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Pain Med. 2015;16(12):2243-55.
  • Dandekar, P. P., Jain, R., Patil, S., Dhumal, R., Tiwari, D., Sharma, S., Vanage, G., and Patravale, V. Curcumin-loaded hydrogel nanoparticles: application in anti-malarial therapy and toxicological evaluation. J Pharm Sci 2010;99(12):4992-5010.
  • Dastgheib M, Barati-Boldaji R, Bahrampour N, et al. A comparison of the effects of cinnamon, ginger, and metformin consumption on metabolic health, anthropometric indices, and sexual hormone levels in women with poly cystic ovary syndrome: A randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial. Front Nutr. 2022 Nov 29;9:1071515.
  • Daveluy A, Géniaux H, Thibaud L, Mallaret M, Miremont-Salamé G, Haramburu F. Probable interaction between an oral vitamin K antagonist and turmeric (Curcuma longa). Therapie. 2014 Nov-Dec;69(6):519-20.
  • de Araújo MRC, Maciel PP, Castellano LRC, et al. Efficacy of essential oil of cinnamon for the treatment of oral candidiasis: A randomized trial. Spec Care Dentist 2021;41(3):349-357.
  • De Silva DAM, Jeewanthi RKC, Rajapaksha RHN, et al. Clean vs dirty labels: Transparency and authenticity of the labels of Ceylon cinnamon. PLoS One 2021;16(11):e0260474.
  • De, R., Kundu, P., Swarnakar, S., Ramamurthy, T., Chowdhury, A., Nair, G. B., and Mukhopadhyay, A. K. Antimicrobial activity of curcumin against Helicobacter pylori isolates from India and during infections in mice. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 2009;53(4):1592-1597.
  • Deeb D, Xu YX, Jiang H, et al. Curcumin (diferuloyl-methane) enhances tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther 2003;2:95-103.
  • Dehzad MJ, Ghalandari H, Nouri M, Askarpour M. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin/turmeric supplementation in adults: A GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Cytokine 2023;164:156144.
  • Dehzad MJ, Ghalandari H, Nouri M, Askarpour M. Effects of curcumin/turmeric supplementation on obesity indices and adipokines in adults: A grade-assessed systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytother Res 2023;37(4):1703-1728.
  • Deodhar SD, Sethi R, Srimal RC. Preliminary study on antirheumatic activity of curcumin (diferuloyl methane). Indian J Med Res 1980;71:632-4.
  • Doggrell, Sheila A. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011 Aug;2011:438790. doi: 10.1155/2011/438790. Epub 2011 Jun 21. Tilia tomentosa Honey Attenuates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in a Rat Model of Acute Bronchitis.
  • Dominguez-Balmaseda D, Diez-Vega I, Larrosa M, et al. Effect of a Blend of Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Bixa orellana L. Herbal Supplement on the Recovery of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness Induced by Unaccustomed Eccentric Resistance Training: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Front Physiol. 2020;11:826.
  • Donovan EK, Kekes-Szabo S, Lin JC, et al. A placebo-controlled, pseudo-randomized, crossover trial of botanical agents for gulf war illness: Curcumin (Curcuma longa), boswellia (Boswellia serrata), and French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster). Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(5):2468.
  • Dorai, T., Cao, Y. C., Dorai, B., Buttyan, R., and Katz, A. E. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in human prostate cancer. III. Curcumin inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis, and inhibits angiogenesis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vivo. Prostate 6-1-2001;47(4):293-303.
  • Dou, X., Fan, C., Wo, L., Yan, J., Qian, Y., and Wo, X. Curcumin up-regulates LDL receptor expression via the sterol regulatory element pathway in HepG2 cells. Planta Med. 2008;74(11):1374-1379.
  • Drozdov VN, Kim VA, Tkachenko EV, Varvanina GG. Influence of a specific ginger combination on gastropathy conditions in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. J Alt Compl Med 2012;18:583-8.
  • Dugasani, S., Pichika, M. R., Nadarajah, V. D., Balijepalli, M. K., Tandra, S., and Korlakunta, J. N. Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol. J.Ethnopharmacol. 2-3-2010;127(2):515-520.
  • Eberhart LH, Mayer R, Betz O, et al. Ginger does not prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic surgery. Anesth Analg 2003;96:995-8.
  • Ebrahimzadeh A, Abbasi F, Ebrahimzadeh A, Jibril AT, Milajerdi A. Effects of curcumin supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ulcerative colitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Med 2021;61:102773.
  • Ebrahimzadeh A, Ebrahimzadeh A, Mirghazanfari SM, Hazrati E, Hadi S, Milajerdi A. The effect of ginger supplementation on metabolic profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complement Ther Med 2022;65:102802.
  • Eidi A, Mortazavi P, Bazargam M, Zaringhalam J. Hepatoprotective activity of cinnamon ethanolic extract against CCL 4-induced liver injury in rats. EXCLI J 2012;11:495-507.
  • El Abhar, H. S., Hammad, L. N., and Gawad, H. S. Modulating effect of ginger extract on rats with ulcerative colitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 8-13-2008;118(3):367-372.
  • El Agamy, D. S. Comparative effects of curcumin and resveratrol on aflatoxin B(1)-induced liver injury in rats. Arch.Toxicol 2010;84(5):389-396.
  • El Az NMTA, Khalil FAM, Shaapan RM. Therapeutic effect of onion (allium cepa) and cinnamon (cinnamomum zeylanicum) oils on cryptosporidiosis in experimentally infected mice. Global Vet 2011;7:179-83.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Elyasi S, Rasta S, Taghizadeh-Kermani A, Hosseini S. Topical henna and curcumin (Alpha®) ointment efficacy for prevention of capecitabine induced hand-foot syndrome: A randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical. Daru 2022;30(1):117-125.
  • Emrani Z, Shojaei E, Khalili H. Ginger for Prevention of Antituberculosis-induced Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions Including Hepatotoxicity: A Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial. Phytother Res. 2016;30(6):1003-9.
  • Epelbaum, R., Schaffer, M., Vizel, B., Badmaev, V., and Bar-Sela, G. Curcumin and gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Nutr Cancer 2010;62(8):1137-1141.
  • Ernst E, Pittler MH. Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Br J Anaesth 2000;84:367-71.
  • Eybl, V., Kotyzova, D., and Bludovska, M. The effect of curcumin on cadmium-induced oxidative damage and trace elements level in the liver of rats and mice. Toxicol Lett. 6-15-2004;151(1):79-85.
  • Fan, C., Wo, X., Qian, Y., Yin, J., and Gao, L. Effect of curcumin on the expression of LDL receptor in mouse macrophages. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-21-2006;105(1-2):251-254.
  • Fang, X. D., Yang, F., Zhu, L., Shen, Y. L., Wang, L. L., and Chen, Y. Y. Curcumin ameliorates high glucose-induced acute vascular endothelial dysfunction in rat thoracic aorta. Clin Exp.Pharmacol Physiol 2009;36(12):1177-1182.
  • Farahpour MR, Habibi M. Evaluation of the wound healing activity of an ethanolic extract of Ceylon cinnamon in mice. Vet Med 2012;57:53-7.
  • Farkas, Á., Balázs, V. L., Kõszegi, T., Csepregi, R., Kerekes, E., Horváth, G., Szabó, P., Gaál, K., & Kocsis, M. (2022). Antibacterial and Biofilm Degradation Effects of Hungarian Honeys Linked With Botanical Origin, Antioxidant Capacity and Mineral Content. Frontiers in Nutrition, 9, 953470. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.953470
  • Felter SP, Vassallo JD, Carlton BD, Daston GP. A safety assessment of coumarin taking into account species-specificity of toxicokinetics. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44:462-75.
  • Feng J, Li Z, Tian L, et al. Efficacy and safety of curcuminoids alone in alleviating pain and dysfunction for knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Complement Med Ther 2022;22(1):276.
  • Feng XG, Hao WJ, Ding Z, et al. Clinical study on tongyan spray for post-stroke dysphagia patients: a randomized controlled trial. Chin J Integr Med. 2012;18:345-9.
  • Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional’s Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.
  • Fiala, M., Liu, P. T., Espinosa-Jeffrey, A., Rosenthal, M. J., Bernard, G., Ringman, J. M., Sayre, J., Zhang, L., Zaghi, J., Dejbakhsh, S., Chiang, B., Hui, J., Mahanian, M., Baghaee, A., Hong, P., and Cashman, J. Innate immunity and transcription of MGAT-III and Toll-like receptors in Alzheimer’s disease patients are improved by bisdemethoxycurcumin. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S A 7-31-2007;104(31):12849-12854.
  • Ficker, C. E., Arnason, J. T., Vindas, P. S., Alvarez, L. P., Akpagana, K., Gbeassor, M., De Souza, C., and Smith, M. L. Inhibition of human pathogenic fungi by ethnobotanically selected plant extracts. Mycoses 2003;46(1-2):29-37.
  • Ficker, C., Smith, M. L., Akpagana, K., Gbeassor, M., Zhang, J., Durst, T., Assabgui, R., and Arnason, J. T. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of antifungal compounds from ginger. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(8):897-902.
  • Fischer-Rasmussen W, Kjaer SK, Dahl C, Asping U. Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1991;38:19-24.
  • Flynn, D. L., Rafferty, M. F., and Boctor, A. M. Inhibition of 5-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) formation in intact human neutrophils by naturally-occurring diarylheptanoids: inhibitory activities of curcuminoids and yakuchinones. Prostaglandins Leukot.Med. 1986;22(3):357-360.
  • Fouda, A. M. and Berika, M. Y. Evaluation of the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes in rat collagen-induced arthritis. Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2009;104(3):262-271.
  • Frautschy, S. A., Hu, W., Kim, P., Miller, S. A., Chu, T., Harris-White, M. E., and Cole, G. M. Phenolic anti-inflammatory antioxidant reversal of Abeta-induced cognitive deficits and neuropathology. Neurobiol.Aging 2001;22(6):993-1005.
  • Frondoza CG, Sohrabi A, Polotsky A, et al. An in vitro screening assay for inhibitors of proinflammatory mediators in herbal extracts using human synoviocyte cultures. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2004;40:95-101.
  • Fung FY, Wong WH, Ang SK, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled study on the anti-haemostatic effects of Curcuma longa, Angelica sinensis and Panax ginseng. Phytomedicine. 2017;32:88-96.
  • Funk, J. L., Frye, J. B., Oyarzo, J. N., Kuscuoglu, N., Wilson, J., McCaffrey, G., Stafford, G., Chen, G., Lantz, R. C., Jolad, S. D., Solyom, A. M., Kiela, P. R., and Timmermann, B. N. Efficacy and mechanism of action of turmeric supplements in the treatment of experimental arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54(11):3452-3464.
  • Futrell, J. M. and Rietschel, R. L. Spice allergy evaluated by results of patch tests. Cutis 1993;52(5):288-290.
  • Ganta, S., Devalapally, H., and Amiji, M. Curcumin enhances oral bioavailability and anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel upon administration in nanoemulsion formulation. J Pharm Sci 2010;99(11):4630-4641.
  • Garcea, G., Berry, D. P., Jones, D. J., Singh, R., Dennison, A. R., Farmer, P. B., Sharma, R. A., Steward, W. P., and Gescher, A. J. Consumption of the putative chemopreventive agent curcumin by cancer patients: assessment of curcumin levels in the colorectum and their pharmacodynamic consequences. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(1):120-125.
  • Garcia-Alloza, M., Borrelli, L. A., Rozkalne, A., Hyman, B. T., and Bacskai, B. J. Curcumin labels amyloid pathology in vivo, disrupts existing plaques, and partially restores distorted neurites in an Alzheimer mouse model. J Neurochem. 2007;102(4):1095-1104.
  • Geiger J. The essential oil of ginger, Zingiber officinale, and anaesthesia. Int J Aromather 2005;15:7-14.
  • Ghaffari A, Rafraf M, Navekar R, Sepehri B, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Ghavami SM. Turmeric and chicory seed have beneficial effects on obesity markers and lipid profile in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2019;89(5-6):293-302. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000568.
  • Ghanbarzadeh-Ghashti N, Ghanbari-Homaie S, Shaseb E, Abbasalizadeh S, Mirghafourvand M. The effect of Curcumin on metabolic parameters and androgen level in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Endocr Disord 2023;23(1):40.
  • Ghayur, M.N., Gilani, A. H. Ginger lowers blood pressure through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2005;45:74-80.
  • Ghayur, M. N. and Gilani, A. H. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders. Dig.Dis.Sci 2005;50(10):1889-1897.
  • Ghayur, M. N., Gilani, A. H., Afridi, M. B., and Houghton, P. J. Cardiovascular effects of ginger aqueous extract and its phenolic constituents are mediated through multiple pathways. Vascul.Pharmacol. 2005;43(4):234-241.
  • Ghayur, M. N., Gilani, A. H., and Janssen, L. J. Ginger attenuates acetylcholine-induced contraction and Ca2+ signalling in murine airway smooth muscle cells. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;86(5):264-271.
  • Ghosh, A. K., Kay, N. E., Secreto, C. R., and Shanafelt, T. D. Curcumin inhibits prosurvival pathways in chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells and may overcome their stromal protection in combination with EGCG. Clin Cancer Res 2-15-2009;15(4):1250-1258.
  • Gilad O, Rosner G, Ivancovsky-Wajcman D, et al. Efficacy of wholistic turmeric supplement on adenomatous polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis-A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Genes (Basel) 2022;13(12):2182.
  • Gobbi, M., Moia, M., Funicello, M., Riva, A., Morazzoni, P., and Mennini, T. In vitro effects of the dicyclohexylammonium salt of hyperforin on interleukin-6 release in different experimental models. Planta Med 2004;70(7):680-682.
  • Goh, C. L. and Ng, S. K. Allergic contact dermatitis to Curcuma longa (turmeric). Contact Dermatitis 1987;17(3):186.
  • Gonda, R., Takeda, K., Shimizu, N., and Tomoda, M. Characterization of a neutral polysaccharide having activity on the reticuloendothelial system from the rhizome of Curcuma longa. Chem.Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 1992;40(1):185-188.
  • Gonda, R., Tomoda, M., Shimizu, N., and Kanari, M. Characterization of polysaccharides having activity on the reticuloendothelial system from the rhizome of Curcuma longa. Chem.Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 1990;38(2):482-486.
  • Gonda, R., Tomoda, M., Takada, K., Ohara, N., and Shimizu, N. The core structure of ukonan A, a phagocytosis-activating polysaccharide from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, and immunological activities of degradation products. Chem.Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 1992;40(4):990-993.
  • Goodarzi R, Sabzian K, Shishehbor F, Mansoori A. Does turmeric/curcumin supplementation improve serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytother Res. 2019;33(3):561-570.
  • Gopalan, B., Goto, M., Kodama, A., and Hirose, T. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of turmeric (Curcuma longa). J Agric.Food Chem. 2000;48(6):2189-2192.
  • Gorabi AM, Abbasifard M, Imani D, et al. Effect of curcumin on C-reactive protein as a biomarker of systemic inflammation: An updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytother Res 2021.
  • Gota, V. S., Maru, G. B., Soni, T. G., Gandhi, T. R., Kochar, N., and Agarwal, M. G. Safety and pharmacokinetics of a solid lipid curcumin particle formulation in osteosarcoma patients and healthy volunteers. J Agric.Food Chem 2-24-2010;58(4):2095-2099.
  • Goto, H., Sasaki, Y., Fushimi, H., Shibahara, N., Shimada, Y., and Komatsu, K. Effect of curcuma herbs on vasomotion and hemorheology in spontaneously hypertensive rat. Am.J Chin Med. 2005;33(3):449-457.
  • Grammatikopoulou MG, Gkiouras K, Theodoridis X, Asteriou E, Forbes A, Bogdanos DP. Oral Adjuvant Curcumin Therapy for Attaining Clinical Remission in Ulcerative Colitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2018;10(11). pii: E1737.
  • Grandjean-Laquerriere, A., Gangloff, S. C., Le Naour, R., Trentesaux, C., Hornebeck, W., and Guenounou, M. Relative contribution of NF-kappaB and AP-1 in the modulation by curcumin and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate of the UVB-induced cytokine expression by keratinocytes. Cytokine 5-7-2002;18(3):168-177.
  • Greenway FL, Liu Z, Martin CK, et al. Safety and efficacy of NT, an herbal supplement, in treating human obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30:1737-41.
  • Grontved A, Brask T, Kambskard J, Hentzer E. Ginger root against seasickness: a controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngol 1998;105:45-9.
  • Grontved A, Hentzer E. Vertigo-reducing effect of ginger root. A controlled clinical study. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 1986;48:282-6.
  • Guh, J. H., Ko, F. N., Jong, T. T., and Teng, C. M. Antiplatelet effect of gingerol isolated from Zingiber officinale. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 1995;47(4):329-332.
  • Guimaraes, M. R., Coimbra, L. S., de Aquino, S. G., Spolidorio, L. C., Kirkwood, K. L., and Rossa, C., Jr. Potent anti-inflammatory effects of systemically administered curcumin modulate periodontal disease in vivo. J Periodontal Res 2011;46(2):269-279.
  • Gupta SC, Patchva S, Aggarwal BB. Therapeutic roles of curcumin: lessons learned from clinical trials. AAPS J. 2013;15(1):195-218.
  • Gupta, Y. K. and Sharma, M. Reversal of pyrogallol-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale). Methods Find.Exp.Clin Pharmacol. 2001;23(9):501-503.
  • Guzelcan, Y., Scholte, W. F., Assies, J., and Becker, H. E. [Mania during the use of a combination preparation with St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum)]. Ned.Tijdschr.Geneeskd. 10-6-2001;145(40):1943-1945.
  • Habib, S. H., Makpol, S., Abdul, Hamid NA, Das, S., Ngah, W. Z., and Yusof, Y. A. Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects on ethionine-induced hepatoma rats. Clinics.(Sao Paulo) 2008;63(6):807-813.
  • Haghighi M, Khalva A, Toliat T, Jallaei S. Comparing the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract and ibuprofen on patients with osteoarthritis. Arch Iran Med 2005;8:267-71.
  • Haines SR, McCann MJ, Grosvenor AJ, Thomas A, Noble A, Clerens S. ACE inhibitory peptides in standard and fermented deer velvet: an in silico and in vitro investigation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2019 Dec 5;19(1):350.
  • Hajimonfarednejad M, Nimrouzi M, Heydari M, Zarshenas MM, Raee MJ, Jahromi BN. Insulin resistance improvement by cinnamon powder in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res 2018;32(2):276-83.
  • Hajimoosayi F, Jahanian Sadatmahalleh S, Kazemnejad A, Pirjani R. Effect of ginger on the blood glucose level of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with impaired glucose tolerance test (GTT): a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020;20(1):116.
  • Halegoua-DeMarzio D, Navarro V, Ahmad J, et al. Liver injury associated with turmeric-A growing problem: Ten cases from the drug-induced liver injury network [DILIN]. Am J Med. 2022:S0002-9343(22)00740-9.
  • Hallajzadeh J, Milajerdi A, Kolahdooz F, Amirani E, Mirzaei H, Asemi Z. The effects of curcumin supplementation on endothelial function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytother Res 2019;33(11):2989-95. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6477.
  • Han, L. K., Morimoto, C., Zheng, Y. N., Li, W., Asami, E., Okuda, H., and Saito, M. [Effects of zingerone on fat storage in ovariectomized rats]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2008;128(8):1195-1201.
  • Hanai, H., Iida, T., Takeuchi, K., Watanabe, F., Maruyama, Y., Andoh, A., Tsujikawa, T., Fujiyama, Y., Mitsuyama, K., Sata, M., Yamada, M., Iwaoka, Y., Kanke, K., Hiraishi, H., Hirayama, K., Arai, H., Yoshii, S., Uchijima, M., Nagata, T., and Koide, Y. Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2006;4(12):1502-1506.
  • Hansell EJ, Brett A, Škarabot J, James LJ, Clifford T. Curcumin Attenuates Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness and Muscle Function Deficits Following a Soccer Match in Male Professional Soccer Players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2023;18(4):347-353.View abstract.
  • Haroyan A, Mukuchyan V, Mkrtchyan N, et al. Efficacy and safety of curcumin and its combination with boswellic acid in osteoarthritis: a comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018;18(1):7.
  • Harrer, G., Hubner, W. D., and Podzuweit, H. Effectiveness and tolerance of the hypericum extract LI 160 compared to maprotiline: a multicenter double-blind study. J.Geriatr.Psychiatry Neurol. 1994;7 Suppl 1:S24-S28.
  • Hashemzadeh K, Davoudian N, Jaafari MR, Mirfeizi Z. The effect of nanocurcumin on the improvement symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial. Curr Rheumatol Rev 2019 Dec 23. doi: 10.2174/1874471013666191223152658. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Hassan SA, Barthwal R, Nair MS, Haque SS. Aqueous bark extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum: a potential therapeutic agent for steptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) rats. Top J Pharm Res 2012;11:429-35.
  • Hata M, Sasaki E, Ota M, et al . Allergic contact dermatitis from curcumin (turmeric). Contact Dermatitis 1997;36:107-8.
  • Hawrelak, J. A. and Myers, S. P. Effects of two natural medicine formulations on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16(10):1065-1071.
  • He, Z. Y., Shi, C. B., Wen, H., Li, F. L., Wang, B. L., and Wang, J. Upregulation of p53 expression in patients with colorectal cancer by administration of curcumin. Cancer Invest 2011;29(3):208-213.
  • Heitmann K, Nordeng H, Holst L. Safety of ginger use in pregnancy: results from a large population-based cohort study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2012 Jun 17.
  • Henning, S. M., Zhang, Y., Seeram, N. P., Lee, R. P., Wang, P., Bowerman, S., and Heber, D. Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of herbs and spices in dry, fresh and blended herb paste form. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2011;62(3):219-225.
  • Hergenhahn, M., Soto, U., Weninger, A., Polack, A., Hsu, C. H., Cheng, A. L., and Rosl, F. The chemopreventive compound curcumin is an efficient inhibitor of Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 transcription in Raji DR-LUC cells. Mol.Carcinog. 2002;33(3):137-145.
  • Heshmati J, Moini A, Sepidarkish M, et al. Effects of curcumin supplementation on blood glucose, insulin resistance and androgens in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytomedicine 2021 Jan;80:153395. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153395.
  • Heshmati J, Sepidarkish M, Morvaridzadeh M, et al. The effect of cinnamon supplementation on glycemic control in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Food Biochem 2020 Oct 27:e13543. doi: 10.1111/jfbc.13543.
  • Hicks, S. M., Walker, A. F., Gallagher, J., Middleton, R. W., and Wright, J. The significance of “nonsignificance” in randomized controlled studies: a discussion inspired by a double-blinded study on St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) for premenstrual symptoms. J.Altern.Complement Med. 2004;10(6):925-932.
  • Hirata A, Funato H, Nakai M, et al. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People. Biol Pharm Bull. 2016;39(7):1107-11.
  • Ho, S. C., Tsai, T. H., Tsai, P. J., and Lin, C. C. Protective capacities of certain spices against peroxynitrite-mediated biomolecular damage. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2008;46(3):920-928.
  • Holland, M. L., Panetta, J. A., Hoskins, J. M., Bebawy, M., Roufogalis, B. D., Allen, J. D., and Arnold, J. C. The effects of cannabinoids on P-glycoprotein transport and expression in multidrug resistant cells. Biochem.Pharmacol 4-14-2006;71(8):1146-1154.
  • Holt, P. R., Katz, S., and Kirshoff, R. Curcumin therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study. Dig.Dis.Sci. 2005;50(11):2191-2193.
  • Holtmann S, Clarke AH, Scherer H, et al. The anti-motion sickness mechanism of ginger. A comparative study with placebo and dimenhydrinate. Acta Otolaryngol. 1989;108:168-74.
  • Honda, S., Aoki, F., Tanaka, H., Kishida, H., Nishiyama, T., Okada, S., Matsumoto, I., Abe, K., and Mae, T. Effects of ingested turmeric oleoresin on glucose and lipid metabolisms in obese diabetic mice: a DNA microarray study. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-29-2006;54(24):9055-9062.
  • Horie, S., Yamamoto, H., Michael, G. J., Uchida, M., Belai, A., Watanabe, K., Priestley, J. V., and Murayama, T. Protective role of vanilloid receptor type 1 in HCl-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Scand.J Gastroenterol. 2004;39(4):303-312.
  • Hou, X. L., Takahashi, K., Kinoshita, N., Qiu, F., Tanaka, K., Komatsu, K., Takahashi, K., and Azuma, J. Possible inhibitory mechanism of Curcuma drugs on CYP3A4 in 1alpha,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 treated Caco-2 cells. Int.J Pharm 6-7-2007;337(1-2):169-177.
  • Hou, X. L., Takahashi, K., Tanaka, K., Tougou, K., Qiu, F., Komatsu, K., Takahashi, K., and Azuma, J. Curcuma drugs and curcumin regulate the expression and function of P-gp in Caco-2 cells in completely opposite ways. Int.J Pharm 6-24-2008;358(1-2):224-229.
  • Hsiao AF, Lien YC, Tzeng IS, Liu CT, Chou SH, Horng YS. The efficacy of high- and low-dose curcumin in knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Med 2021;63:102775.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monofloral_honey
  • http://keepingbee.org/linden-honey/
  • http://www.honeytraveler.com/single-flower-honey/linden-lime-basswood-honey/
  • Hu ML, Rayner CK, Wu KL, et al. Effect of ginger on gastric motility and symptoms of functional dyspepsia. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:105-10.
  • Hu Y, Amoah AN, Zhang H, et al. Effect of ginger in the treatment of nausea and vomiting compared with vitamin B6 and placebo during pregnancy: a meta-analysis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020:1-10.
  • Hu, G. X., Liang, G., Chu, Y., Li, X., Lian, Q. Q., Lin, H., He, Y., Huang, Y., Hardy, D. O., and Ge, R. S. Curcumin derivatives inhibit testicular 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3. Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett. 4-15-2010;20(8):2549-2551.
  • Hu, Y., Du, Q., and Tang, Q. [Determination of chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Curcuma longa by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry]. Se.Pu. 1998;16(6):528-529.
  • Huang, C. Y., Chen, J. H., Tsai, C. H., Kuo, W. W., Liu, J. Y., and Chang, Y. C. Regulation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling in human osteosarcoma cells stimulated with nicotine. J Periodontal Res 2005;40(2):176-181.
  • Huang, H. C., Jan, T. R., and Yeh, S. F. Inhibitory effect of curcumin, an anti-inflammatory agent, on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Eur.J Pharmacol. 10-20-1992;221(2-3):381-384.
  • Huang, M. T., Deschner, E. E., Newmark, H. L., Wang, Z. Y., Ferraro, T. A., and Conney, A. H. Effect of dietary curcumin and ascorbyl palmitate on azoxymethanol- induced colonic epithelial cell proliferation and focal areas of dysplasia. Cancer Lett. 6-15-1992;64(2):117-121.
  • Huang, M. T., Lysz, T., Ferraro, T., Abidi, T. F., Laskin, J. D., and Conney, A. H. Inhibitory effects of curcumin on in vitro lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activities in mouse epidermis. Cancer Res. 2-1-1991;51(3):813-819.
  • Hunt R, Dienemann J, Norton HJ, Hartley W, Hudgens A, Stern T, Divine G. Aromatherapy as treatment for postoperative nausea: a randomized trial. Anesth Analg 2013;117(3):597-604.
  • Hussaarts KGAM, Hurkmans DP, Oomen-de Hoop E, et al. Impact of curcumin (with or without piperine) on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen. Cancers (Basel). 2019;11(3):403.
  • Hussain, M. S. and Chandrasekhara, N. Effect on curcumin on cholesterol gall-stone induction in mice. Indian J Med.Res. 1992;96:288-291.
  • Imam Z, Khasawneh M, Jomaa D, Iftikhar H, Sayedahmad Z. Drug induced liver injury attributed to a curcumin supplement. Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2019 Oct 20;2019:6029403. doi: 10.1155/2019/6029403.
  • Inano, H. and Onoda, M. Radioprotective action of curcumin extracted from Curcuma longa LINN: inhibitory effect on formation of urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, tumorigenesis, but not mortality, induced by gamma-ray irradiation. Int.J Radiat.Oncol.Biol.Phys. 7-1-2002;53(3):735-743.
  • Ippoushi, K., Azuma, K., Ito, H., Horie, H., and Higashio, H. [6]-Gingerol inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in activated J774.1 mouse macrophages and prevents peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration reactions. Life Sci 11-14-2003;73(26):3427-3437.
  • Ippoushi, K., Ito, H., Horie, H., and Azuma, K. Mechanism of inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration by [6]-gingerol. Planta Med 2005;71(6):563-566.
  • Iqbal, Z., Lateef, M., Akhtar, M. S., Ghayur, M. N., and Gilani, A. H. In vivo anthelmintic activity of ginger against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. J Ethnopharmacol. 6-30-2006;106(2):285-287.
  • Isaac-Renton M, Li MK, Parsons LM. Cinnamon spice and everything not nice: many features of intraoral allergy to cinnamic aldehyde. Dermatitis. 2015;26(3):116-21.
  • Islam MS, Choi H. Comparative effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) investigated in a type 2 diabetes model of rats. J Med Food. 2008;11:152-9.
  • Jahangirifar M, Taebi M, Dolatian M. The effect of cinnamon on primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2018;33:56-60.
  • Jain S, Sangma T, Shukla SK, Mediratta PK. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats. Nutr Neurosci 2015;18(5):210-6.
  • Jain, S. K., Rains, J., Croad, J., Larson, B., and Jones, K. Curcumin supplementation lowers TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretion in high glucose-treated cultured monocytes and blood levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, MCP-1, glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic rats. Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 2009;11(2):241-249.
  • Jain, V., Prasad, V., Pal, R., and Singh, S. Standardization and stability studies of neuroprotective lipid soluble fraction obtained from Curcuma longa. J Pharm Biomed.Anal. 9-3-2007;44(5):1079-1086.
  • Jamali N, Adib-Hajbaghery M, Soleimani A. The effect of curcumin ointment on knee pain in older adults with osteoarthritis: a randomized placebo trial. BMC Complement Med Ther 2020;20(1):305.
  • Janssen, P. L., Meyboom, S., van Staveren, W. A., de Vegt, F., and Katan, M. B. Consumption of ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) does not affect ex vivo platelet thromboxane production in humans. Eur.J Clin Nutr. 1996;50(11):772-774.
  • Jarvill-Taylor KJ, Anderson RA, Graves DJ. A hydroxychalcone derived from cinnamon functions as a mimetic for insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:327-36.
  • Javed I, Faisal I, Rahman Z, et al. Lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits. Pak J Pharm Sci 2012;25(1):141-7.
  • Jayasekera, R., Freitas, M. C., and Araujo, M. F. Bulk and trace element analysis of spices: the applicability of k0-standardization and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. J Trace Elem.Med.Biol. 2004;17(4):221-228.
  • Jenabi E. The effect of ginger for relieving of primary dysmenorrhoea. J Pak Med Assoc 2013;63(1):8-10.
  • Jewell D, Young G. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;(2):CD000145.
  • Ji, H. F. and Shen, L. Interactions of curcumin with the PfATP6 model and the implications for its antimalarial mechanism. Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett. 5-1-2009;19(9):2453-2455.
  • Ji, M., Choi, J., Lee, J., and Lee, Y. Induction of apoptosis by ar-turmerone on various cell lines. Int.J Mol.Med. 2004;14(2):253-256.
  • Jiang N, Zhang M, Meng X, Sun B. Effects of Curcumin on the Pharmacokinetics of Amlodipine in Rats and Its Potential Mechanism. Pharm Biol. 2020;58(1):465-468.
  • Jiang X, Blair EY, McLachlan AJ. Investigation of the effects of herbal medicines on warfarin response in healthy subjects: a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling approach. J Clin Pharmacol 2006;46:1370-8.
  • Jiang X, Williams KM, Liauw WS, et al. Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005;59:425-32.
  • Jiang, H., Timmermann, B. N., and Gang, D. R. Use of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to identify diarylheptanoids in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizome. J Chromatogr.A 4-7-2006;1111(1):21-31.
  • Jiao, Y., Wilkinson, J., Christine, Pietsch E., Buss, J. L., Wang, W., Planalp, R., Torti, F. M., and Torti, S. V. Iron chelation in the biological activity of curcumin. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 4-1-2006;40(7):1152-1160.
  • Jiao, Y., Wilkinson, J., Di, X., Wang, W., Hatcher, H., Kock, N. D., D’Agostino, R., Jr., Knovich, M. A., Torti, F. M., and Torti, S. V. Curcumin, a cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent, is a biologically active iron chelator. Blood 1-8-2009;113(2):462-469.
  • Jie Z, Chao M, Jun A, Wei S, LiFeng M. Effect of curcumin on diabetic kidney disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021;2021:6109406.
  • Jolad, S. D., Lantz, R. C., Solyom, A. M., Chen, G. J., Bates, R. B., and Timmermann, B. N. Fresh organically grown ginger (Zingiber officinale): composition and effects on LPS-induced PGE2 production. Phytochemistry 2004;65(13):1937-1954.
  • Joshi, J., Ghaisas, S., Vaidya, A., Vaidya, R., Kamat, D. V., Bhagwat, A. N., and Bhide, S. Early human safety study of turmeric oil (Curcuma longa oil) administered orally in healthy volunteers. J Assoc.Physicians India 2003;51:1055-1060.
  • Juan, H., Terhaag, B., Cong, Z., Bi-Kui, Z., Rong-Hua, Z., Feng, W., Fen-Li, S., Juan, S., Jing, T., and Wen-Xing, P. Unexpected effect of concomitantly administered curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of talinolol in healthy Chinese volunteers. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol 2007;63(7):663-668.
  • Jung, H. W., Yoon, C. H., Park, K. M., Han, H. S., and Park, Y. K. Hexane fraction of Zingiberis Rhizoma Crudus extract inhibits the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells via the NF-kappaB pathway. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(6):1190-1197.
  • Junyaprasert, V. B., Soonthornchareonnon, N., Thongpraditchote, S., Murakami, T., and Takano, M. Inhibitory effect of Thai plant extracts on P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. Phytother.Res 2006;20(1):79-81.
  • Kadnur, S. V. and Goyal, R. K. Beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on fructose induced hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2005;43(12):1161-1164.
  • Kalava A, Darji SJ, Kalstein A, Yarmush JM, SchianodiCola J, Weinberg J. Efficacy of ginger on intraoperative and postoperative nausea and vomiting in elective cesarean section patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013;169(2):184-8.
  • Kalluru H, Mallayasamy SR, Kondaveeti SS, Chandrasekhar V, Kalachaveedu M. Effect of turmeric supplementation on the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel in breast cancer patients: A study with population pharmacokinetics approach. Phytother Res 2022;36(4):1761-1769.
  • Kamali A, Beigi S, Shokrpour M, Pazuki S. The efficacy of ginger and doxedetomidine in reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Altern Ther Health Med. 2020;26(2):28-33.
  • Kamath JV, Rana AC, Chowdhury AR. Pro-healing effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark. Phytother Res 2003;17(8):970-2.
  • Kamtchouing, P., Mbongue Fandio, G. Y., Dimo, T., and Jatsa, H. B. Evaluation of androgenic activity of Zingiber officinale and Pentadiplandra brazzeana in male rats. Asian J Androl 2002;4(4):299-301.
  • Kanai, M., Imaizumi, A., Otsuka, Y., Sasaki, H., Hashiguchi, M., Tsujiko, K., Matsumoto, S., Ishiguro, H., and Chiba, T. Dose-escalation and pharmacokinetic study of nanoparticle curcumin, a potential anticancer agent with improved bioavailability, in healthy human volunteers. Cancer Chemother.Pharmacol 2012;69(1):65-70.
  • Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from spices. Contact Dermatitis 1996;35:157-62.
  • Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from spices. Contact Dermatitis 1996;35:157-62.
  • Kang SC, Lee CM, Choi H, et al. Evaluation of oriental medicinal herbs for estrogenic and antiproliferative activities. Phytother Res. 2006;20(11):1017-9.
  • Karandish M, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Mohammadi SM, Cheraghian B, Azhdari M. The effect of curcumin and zinc co-supplementation on glycemic parameters in overweight or obese prediabetic subjects: A phase 2 randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a multi-arm, parallel-group design. Phytother Res. 2021;35(8):4377-4387.
  • Karlapudi V, Prasad Mungara AVV, Sengupta K, Davis BA, Rachaudhuri SP. A placebo-controlled double-blind study demonstrates the clinical efficacy of a novel herbal formulation for relieving joint discomfort in human subjects with osteoarthritis of knee. J Med Food. 2018 May;21(5):511-520.
  • Kashefi F, Khajehei M, Alavinia M, Golmakani E, Asili J. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on heavy menstrual bleeding: a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2015;29(1):114-9.
  • Kashefi F, Khajehei M, Tabatabaeichehr M, Alavinia M, Asili J. Comparison of the effect of ginger and zinc sulfate on primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo-controlled randomized trial. Pain Manag Nurs. 2014;15(4):826-33.
  • Kaur, G., Tirkey, N., Bharrhan, S., Chanana, V., Rishi, P., and Chopra, K. Inhibition of oxidative stress and cytokine activity by curcumin in amelioration of endotoxin-induced experimental hepatoxicity in rodents. Clin Exp.Immunol. 2006;145(2):313-321.
  • Kawamori, T., Lubet, R., Steele, V. E., Kelloff, G. J., Kaskey, R. B., Rao, C. V., and Reddy, B. S. Chemopreventive effect of curcumin, a naturally occurring anti- inflammatory agent, during the promotion/progression stages of colon cancer. Cancer Res 2-1-1999;59(3):597-601.
  • Kazemian A, Toghiani A, Shafiei K, et al. Evaluating the efficacy of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in irritable bowel syndrome patients. J Res Med Sci. 2017;22:120.
  • Khajehdehi, P., Zanjaninejad, B., Aflaki, E., Nazarinia, M., Azad, F., Malekmakan, L., and Dehghanzadeh, G. R. Oral supplementation of turmeric decreases proteinuria, hematuria, and systolic blood pressure in patients suffering from relapsing or refractory lupus nephritis: a randomized and placebo-controlled study. J Ren Nutr 2012;22(1):50-57.
  • Khan A, Safdar M, Ali Khan M, et al. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26:3215-8.
  • Khayat S, Fanaei H, Kherikhah M, Moghadam ZB, Kasaeian A, Javadimehr M. Curcumin attenuates severity of premenstrual syndrome symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2015 Jun;23(3):318-24.
  • Kheradpezhouh, E., Panjehshahin, M. R., Miri, R., Javidnia, K., Noorafshan, A., Monabati, A., and Dehpour, A. R. Curcumin protects rats against acetaminophen-induced hepatorenal damages and shows synergistic activity with N-acetyl cysteine. Eur.J Pharmacol 2-25-2010;628(1-3):274-281.
  • Khodaie L, Sadeghpoor O. Ginger from ancient times to the new outlook. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod 2015;10(1):e18402.
  • Khonche A, Biglarian O, Panahi Y, et al. Adjunctive therapy with curcumin for peptic ulcer: a randomized controlled trial. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2016 Aug;66(8):444-8.
  • Kia SJ, Basirat M, Mortezaie T, Moosavi MS. Comparison of oral nano-curcumin with oral prednisolone on oral lichen planus: a randomized double-blinded clinical trial. BMC Complement Med Ther 2020;20(1):328.
  • Kia SJ, Basirat M, Saedi HS, Arab SA. Effects of nanomicelle curcumin capsules on prevention and treatment of oral mucosits in patients under chemotherapy with or without head and neck radiotherapy: a randomized clinical trial. BMC Complement Med Ther 2021;21(1):232.
  • Kiec-Swierczynska, M. and Krecisz, B. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to curcumin food colour in a pasta factory worker. Contact Dermatitis 1998;39(1):30-31.
  • Kim, I. G., Kang, S. C., Kim, K. C., Choung, E. S., Zee, O. P. Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;25(1):75-82.
  • Kim, D. S., Park, S. Y., and Kim, J. K. Curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) that protect PC12 rat pheochromocytoma and normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells from betaA(1-42) insult. Neurosci.Lett. 4-27-2001;303(1):57-61.
  • Kim, H. J. and Jang, Y. P. Direct analysis of curcumin in turmeric by DART-MS. Phytochem.Anal. 2009;20(5):372-377.
  • Kim, H. J., Yoo, H. S., Kim, J. C., Park, C. S., Choi, M. S., Kim, M., Choi, H., Min, J. S., Kim, Y. S., Yoon, S. W., and Ahn, J. K. Antiviral effect of Curcuma longa Linn extract against hepatitis B virus replication. J Ethnopharmacol. 7-15-2009;124(2):189-196.
  • Kim, H. W., Murakami, A., Abe, M., Ozawa, Y., Morimitsu, Y., Williams, M. V., and Ohigashi, H. Suppressive effects of mioga ginger and ginger constituents on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation, and the expression of inducible pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages. Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 2005;7(11-12):1621-1629.
  • Kim, K., Kim, K. H., Kim, H. Y., Cho, H. K., Sakamoto, N., and Cheong, J. Curcumin inhibits hepatitis C virus replication via suppressing the Akt-SREBP-1 pathway. FEBS Lett. 2-19-2010;584(4):707-712.
  • Kizhakkedath R. Clinical evaluation of a formulation containing Curcuma longa and Boswellia serrata extracts in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Mol Med Rep 2013;8(5):1542-8.
  • Koçak I, Yücepur C, Gökler O. Is Ginger Effective in Reducing Post-tonsillectomy Morbidity? A Prospective Randomised Clinical Trial. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol. 2018;11(1):65-70.
  • Konmun J, Danwilai K, Ngamphaiboon N, Sripanidkulchai B, Sookprasert A, Subongkot S. A phase II randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of 6-gingerol as an anti-emetic in solid tumor patients receiving moderately to highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Med Oncol. 2017;34(4):69.
  • Koosirirat, C., Linpisarn, S., Changsom, D., Chawansuntati, K., and Wipasa, J. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory effect of Curcuma longa in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10(7):815-818.
  • Korutla, L. and Kumar, R. Inhibitory effect of curcumin on epidermal growth factor receptor kinase activity in A431 cells. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 12-30-1994;1224(3):597-600.
  • Kositchaiwat, C., Kositchaiwat, S., and Havanondha, J. Curcuma longa Linn. in the treatment of gastric ulcer comparison to liquid antacid: a controlled clinical trial. J Med.Assoc.Thai. 1993;76(11):601-605.
  • Kotowski U, Kadletz L, Schneider S, et al. 6-shogaol induces apoptosis and enhances radiosensitivity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Phytother Res. 2018;32(2):340-347.
  • Kowluru, R. A. and Kanwar, M. Effects of curcumin on retinal oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetes. Nutr.Metab (Lond) 2007;4:8.
  • Krizkova, J., Burdova, K., Hudecek, J., Stiborova, M., and Hodek, P. Induction of cytochromes P450 in small intestine by chemopreventive compounds. Neuro.Endocrinol.Lett. 2008;29(5):717-721.
  • Kruth, P., Brosi, E., Fux, R., et al. Ginger-associated overanticoagulation by phenprocoumon. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38:257-60.
  • Kulkarni, R. R., Patki, P. S., Jog, V. P., et al. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. J Ethnopharmacol 1991;33:91-5.
  • Kulkarni, S. K., Bhutani, M. K., and Bishnoi, M. Antidepressant activity of curcumin: involvement of serotonin and dopamine system. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2008;201(3):435-442.
  • Kumar, A. and Singh, A. Possible nitric oxide modulation in protective effect of (Curcuma longa, Zingiberaceae) against sleep deprivation-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative damage in mice. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(8):577-586.
  • Kumar, A., Purwar, B., Shrivastava, A., and Pandey, S. Effects of curcumin on the intestinal motility of albino rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2010;54(3):284-288.
  • Kuo, M. L., Huang, T. S., and Lin, J. K. Curcumin, an antioxidant and anti-tumor promoter, induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 11-15-1996;1317(2):95-100.
  • Kuptniratsaikul V, Dajpratham P, Taechaarpornkul W, Buntragulpoontawee M, Lukkanapichonchut P, Chootip C, Saengsuwan J, Tantayakom K, Laongpech S. Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts compared with ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter study. Clin Interv Aging 2014;9:451-8.
  • Kuptniratsaikul V, Thanakhumtorn S, Chinswangwatanakul P, et al. Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15:891-7.
  • Kurien, B. T. Inhibition of p300 and nuclear factor-kappaB by curcumin and its role in diabetic nephropathy. Nutrition 2009;25(9):973-974.
  • Kusuhara, H., Furuie, H., Inano, A., Sunagawa, A., Yamada, S., Wu, C., Fukizawa, S., Morimoto, N., Ieiri, I., Morishita, M., Sumita, K., Mayahara, H., Fujita, T., Maeda, K., and Sugiyama, Y. Pharmacokinetic interaction study of sulphasalazine in healthy subjects and the impact of curcumin as an in vivo inhibitor of BCRP. Br J Pharmacol 2012;166(6):1793-1803.
  • Kutluay, S. B., Doroghazi, J., Roemer, M. E., and Triezenberg, S. J. Curcumin inhibits herpes simplex virus immediate-early gene expression by a mechanism independent of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase activity. Virology 4-10-2008;373(2):239-247.
  • Kuttan R, Sudheeran PC, Josph CD. Turmeric and curcumin as topical agents in cancer therapy. Tumori 1987;73:29-31..
  • Kuwabara, N., Tamada, S., Iwai, T., Teramoto, K., Kaneda, N., Yukimura, T., Nakatani, T., and Miura, K. Attenuation of renal fibrosis by curcumin in rat obstructive nephropathy. Urology 2006;67(2):440-446.
  • Lal B, Kapoor AK, Asthana OP, et al. Efficacy of curcumin in the management of chronic anterior uveitis. Phytother Res 1999;13:318-22..
  • Lamb, S. R. and Wilkinson, S. M. Contact allergy to tetrahydrocurcumin. Contact Dermatitis 2003;48(4):227.
  • Lang A, Salomon N, Wu JC, et al. Curcumin in combination with mesalamine induces remission in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis in a randomized controlled trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Aug;13(8):1444-9.
  • Langner E, Greifenberg S, Gruenwald J. Ginger: history and use. Adv Ther 1998;15:25-44.
  • Lantz, R. C., Chen, G. J., Sarihan, M., Solyom, A. M., Jolad, S. D., and Timmermann, B. N. The effect of extracts from ginger rhizome on inflammatory mediator production. Phytomedicine 2007;14(2-3):123-128.
  • Lantz, R. C., Chen, G. J., Solyom, A. M., Jolad, S. D., and Timmermann, B. N. The effect of turmeric extracts on inflammatory mediator production. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(6-7):445-452.
  • Lasoff DR, Cantrell FL, Ly BT. Death associated with intravenous turmeric (Curcumin) preparation. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2018;56(5):384-385.
  • Leach MJ, Kumar S. The clinical effectiveness of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in adults with osteoarthritis. Int J Evid Based Healthc 2008;6:311-20.
  • Lee BS, Bhatia T, Chaya CT, Wen R, Taira MT, Lim BS. Autoimmune Hepatitis Associated With Turmeric Consumption. ACG Case Rep J. 2020;7(3):e00320.
  • Lee J, Oh H. Ginger as an antiemetic modality for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oncol Nurs Forum 2013;40(2):163-70.
  • Lee SW, Nah SS, Byon JS, et al. Transient complete atrioventricular block associated with curcumin intake. Int J Cardiol 2011;150:e50-2.
  • Lee, J. C., Kinniry, P. A., Arguiri, E., Serota, M., Kanterakis, S., Chatterjee, S., Solomides, C. C., Javvadi, P., Koumenis, C., Cengel, K. A., and Christofidou-Solomidou, M. Dietary curcumin increases antioxidant defenses in lung, ameliorates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and improves survival in mice. Radiat.Res 2010;173(5):590-601.
  • Lee, T. Y., Lee, K. C., Chen, S. Y., and Chang, H. H. 6-Gingerol inhibits ROS and iNOS through the suppression of PKC-alpha and NF-kappaB pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 4-24-2009;382(1):134-139.
  • Leite, K. R., Chade, D. C., Sanudo, A., Sakiyama, B. Y., Batocchio, G., and Srougi, M. Effects of curcumin in an orthotopic murine bladder tumor model. Int.Braz.J Urol. 2009;35(5):599-606.
  • Lesho EP, Saullo L, Udvari-Nagy S. A 76-year-old woman with erratic anticoagulation. Cleve Clin J Med. 2004;71:651-6.
  • Li X, Qin Y, Liu W, Zhou XY, Li YN, Wang LY. Efficacy of Ginger in Ameliorating Acute and Delayed Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Among Patients With Lung Cancer Receiving Cisplatin-Based Regimens: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Integr Cancer Ther. 2018:1534735417753541.
  • Li Y, Yang D, Gao X, et al. Ginger supplement significantly reduced length of hospital stay in individuals with COVID-19. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2022 Dec 28;19(1):84.
  • Li, H., van Berlo, D., Shi, T., Speit, G., Knaapen, A. M., Borm, P. J., Albrecht, C., and Schins, R. P. Curcumin protects against cytotoxic and inflammatory effects of quartz particles but causes oxidative DNA damage in a rat lung epithelial cell line. Toxicol Appl.Pharmacol 2-15-2008;227(1):115-124.
  • Li, W. Q., Dehnade, F., and Zafarullah, M. Oncostatin M-induced matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 genes expression in chondrocytes requires Janus kinase/STAT signaling pathway. J Immunol. 3-1-2001;166(5):3491-3498.
  • Li, W., Wang, S., Feng, J., Xiao, Y., Xue, X., Zhang, H., Wang, Y., and Liang, X. Structure elucidation and NMR assignments for curcuminoids from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa. Magn Reson.Chem. 2009;47(10):902-908.
  • Li, W., Xiao, H., Wang, L., and Liang, X. [Analysis of minor curcuminoids in Curcuma longa L. by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry]. Se.Pu. 2009;27(3):264-269.
  • Li, Y. C., Wang, F. M., Pan, Y., Qiang, L. Q., Cheng, G., Zhang, W. Y., and Kong, L. D. Antidepressant-like effects of curcumin on serotonergic receptor-coupled AC-cAMP pathway in chronic unpredictable mild stress of rats. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol.Psychiatry 4-30-2009;33(3):435-449.
  • Lian, Q., Li, X., Shang, Y., Yao, S., Ma, L., and Jin, S. Protective effect of curcumin on endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in rats. J Huazhong.Univ Sci.Technolog.Med.Sci. 2006;26(6):678-681.
  • Liddle, M., Hull, C., Liu, C., and Powell, D. Contact urticaria from curcumin. Dermatitis 2006;17(4):196-197.
  • Lien HC, Sun WM, Chen YH, et al. Effects of ginger on motion sickness and gastric slow-wave dysrhythmias induced by circular vection. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;284:G481-9.
  • Lim, G. P., Chu, T., Yang, F., Beech, W., Frautschy, S. A., and Cole, G. M. The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse. J Neurosci. 11-1-2001;21(21):8370-8377.
  • Limtrakul, P., Chearwae, W., Shukla, S., Phisalphong, C., and Ambudkar, S. V. Modulation of function of three ABC drug transporters, P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), mitoxantrone resistance protein (ABCG2) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (ABCC1) by tetrahydrocurcumin, a major metabolite of curcumin. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2007;296(1-2):85-95.
  • Lin, R., Chen, X., Li, W., Han, Y., Liu, P., and Pi, R. Exposure to metal ions regulates mRNA levels of APP and BACE1 in PC12 cells: blockage by curcumin. Neurosci.Lett. 8-8-2008;440(3):344-347.
  • Literat, A., Su, F., Norwicki, M., Durand, M., Ramanathan, R., Jones, C. A., Minoo, P., and Kwong, K. Y. Regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by curcumin in hyaline membrane disease (HMD). Life Sci. 12-7-2001;70(3):253-267.
  • Liu, N., Huo, G., Zhang, L., and Zhang, X. [Effect of Zingiber OfficinaleRosc on lipid peroxidation in hyperlipidemia rats]. Wei Sheng Yan.Jiu. 2003;32(1):22-23.
  • Liu, P. H. and Ho, H. L. Ginger and drug bezoar induced small bowel obstruction. J R.Coll.Surg.Edinb. 1983;28(6):397-398.
  • Lohsiriwat, S., Rukkiat, M., Chaikomin, R., and Leelakusolvong, S. Effect of ginger on lower esophageal sphincter pressure. J.Med.Assoc.Thai. 2010;93(3):366-372.
  • Lombardi N, Crescioli G, Maggini V, et al. Acute liver injury following turmeric use in Tuscany: an analysis of the Italian Phytovigilance database and systematic review of case reports. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2020.
  • Long Z, Xiang W, He Q, et al. Efficacy and safety of dietary polyphenols in rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 47 randomized controlled trials. Front Immunol. 2023;14:1024120.
  • Lopez-Villafuerte L, CLores KH. Contact dermatitis caused by turmeric in a massage oil. Contact Dermatitis. 2016 Jul;75(1):52-3.
  • Lopez, H. L., Ziegenfuss, T. N., Hofheins, J. E., Habowski, S. M., Arent, S. M., Weir, J. P., and Ferrando, A. A. Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2013;10(1):22.
  • Lopresti AL, Smith SJ, Jackson-Michel S, Fairchild T. An investigation into the effects of a curcumin extract (Curcugen ®) on osteoarthritis pain of the knee: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutrients 2021;14(1):41.
  • Lorinczova HT, Begum G, Renshaw D, Zariwala MG. Acute Administration of Bioavailable Curcumin Alongside Ferrous Sulphate Supplements Does Not Impair Iron Absorption in Healthy Adults in a Randomised Trial. Nutrients 2021;13(7):2300.
  • Lua PL, Salihah N, Mazlan N. Effects of inhaled ginger aromatherapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer. Complement Ther Med. 2015;23(3):396-404.
  • Lukefahr AL, McEvoy S, Alfafara C, Funk JL. Drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis associated with turmeric dietary supplement use. BMJ Case Rep. 2018. pii: bcr-2018-224611.
  • Lukkunaprasit T, Tansawet A, Boonmanunt S, et al. An updated meta-analysis of effects of curcumin on metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease based on available evidence from Iran and Thailand. Sci Rep 2023;13(1):5824.
  • Lumb, A. B. Mechanism of antiemetic effect of ginger. Anaesthesia 1993;48:1118.
  • Lumb, A. B. Effect of dried ginger on human platelet function. Thromb.Haemost. 1994;71(1):110-111.
  • Macedo, L.; Fernandes, T.; Silveira, L.; Mesquita, A.; Franchitti, A.A.; Ximenes, E.A. – Phytomedicine. 2014 Jan;21(1):119-25. doi: 10.1016/j.phytomed.2013.10.022. Epub 2013 Nov 15. Antibacterial and antiviral activity of Tilia tomentosa honey.
  • Madden, K., Flowers, L., Salani, R., Horowitz, I., Logan, S., Kowalski, K., Xie, J., and Mohammed, S. I. Proteomics-based approach to elucidate the mechanism of antitumor effect of curcumin in cervical cancer. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2009;80(1):9-18.
  • Madhu K, Chanda K, Saji MJ. Safety and efficacy of Curcuma longa extract in the treatment of painful knee osteoarthritis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Inflammopharmacology 2013;21(2):129-36.
  • Madkor, H. R., Mansour, S. W., and Ramadan, G. Modulatory effects of garlic, ginger, turmeric and their mixture on hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-nicotinamide diabetic rats. Br J Nutr 2011;105(8):1210-1217.
  • Maenthaisong R, Chaiyakunapruk N, Tiyaboonchai W, Tawatsin A, Rojanawiwat A, Thavara U. Efficacy and safety of topical Trikatu preparation in, relieving mosquito bite reactions: a randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2014;22(1):34-9.
  • Maghbooli M, Golipour F, Moghimi Esfandabadi A, Yousefi M. Comparison between the efficacy of ginger and sumatriptan in the ablative treatment of the common migraine. Phytother Res 2014;28(3):412-5.
  • Mahady, G. B., Pendland, S. L., Stoia, A., Hamill, F. A., Fabricant, D., Dietz, B. M., and Chadwick, L. R. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Phytother.Res 2005;19(11):988-991.
  • Mahammedi H, Planchat E, Pouget M, et al. The new combination docetaxel, prednisone and curcumin in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer: A pilot phase II study. Oncology. 2016;90(2):69-78.
  • Maharlouei N, Tabrizi R, Lankarani KB, et al. The effects of ginger intake on weight loss and metabolic profiles among overweight and obese subjects: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2018:1-14.
  • Mahattanadul, S., Nakamura, T., Panichayupakaranant, P., Phdoongsombut, N., Tungsinmunkong, K., and Bouking, P. Comparative antiulcer effect of bisdemethoxycurcumin and curcumin in a gastric ulcer model system. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(4):342-351.
  • Mahesh, T., Balasubashini, M. S., and Menon, V. P. Effect of photo-irradiated curcumin treatment against oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med.Food 2005;8(2):251-255.
  • Mahesh, T., Sri Balasubashini, M. M., and Menon, V. P. Photo-irradiated curcumin supplementation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: effect on lipid peroxidation. Therapie 2004;59(6):639-644.
  • Mahluji S, Attari VE, Mobasseri M, Payahoo L, Ostadrahimi A, Golzari SE. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on plasma glucose level, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2013;64(6):682-6.
  • Majeed M, Nagabhushanam K, Devarajan TV, Saklecha S, Reddy SVK, Mundkur L. A minor metabolite from Curcuma longa effective against metabolic syndrome: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Food Funct 2023;14(10):4722-4733.
  • Malekmakan L, Hamidianjahromi A, Sayadi M, Rezazadeh MH. Efficacy and safety of turmeric dietary supplementation on proteinuria in CKD: A systematic review and meta-analysis of RCT. Iran J Kidney Dis 2022;16(3):153-161.View abstract.
  • Malekzadeh M, Kia SJ, Mashaei L, Moosavi MS. Oral nano-curcumin on gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis and mild periodontitis. Clin Exp Dent Res. 2020. doi: 10.1002/cre2.330. Online ahead of print.
  • Mali AM, Behal R, Gilda SS. Comparative evaluation of 0.1% turmeric mouthwash with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate in prevention of plaque and gingivitis: A clinical and microbiological study. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2012;16(3):386-91.
  • Manarin G, Anderson D, Silva JME, et al. Curcuma longa L. ameliorates asthma control in children and adolescents: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 2019;238:111882.
  • Mani, H., Sidhu, G. S., Kumari, R., Gaddipati, J. P., Seth, P., and Maheshwari, R. K. Curcumin differentially regulates TGF-beta1, its receptors and nitric oxide synthase during impaired wound healing. Biofactors 2002;16(1-2):29-43.
  • Mankowski RT, Sibille KT, Leeuwenburgh C, et al. Effects of Curcumin C3 Complex® on Physical Function in Moderately Functioning Older Adults with Low-Grade Inflammation – A Pilot Trial. J Frailty Aging 2023;12(2):143-149.
  • Mansour, M. S., Ni, Y. M., Roberts, A. L., Kelleman, M., Roychoudhury, A., and St-Onge, M. P. Ginger consumption enhances the thermic effect of food and promotes feelings of satiety without affecting metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight men: a pilot study. Metabolism 2012;61(10):1347-1352.
  • Manusirivithaya S, Sripramote M, Tangjitgamol S, et al. Antiemetic effect of ginger in gynecologic oncology patients receiving cisplatin. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2004;14:1063-9.
  • Manzan, A. C., Toniolo, F. S., Bredow, E., and Povh, N. P. Extraction of essential oil and pigments from Curcuma longa [L] by steam distillation and extraction with volatile solvents. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-5-2003;51(23):6802-6807.
  • Marcus DM, Suarez-Almazor ME. Is there a role for ginger in the treatment of osteoarthritis? Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:2461-2.
  • Martins LB, Rodrigues AMDS, Monteze NM, et al. Double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in the prophylactic treatment of migraine. Cephalalgia. 2020;40(1):88-95.
  • Martins LB, Rodrigues AMDS, Rodrigues DF, Dos Santos LC, Teixeira AL, Ferreira AVM. Double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) addition in migraine acute treatment. Cephalalgia. 2019;39(1):68-76.
  • Marx W, McCarthy AL, Ried K, et al. The Effect of a Standardized Ginger Extract on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea-Related Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Moderately or Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2017 Aug 12;9(8).
  • Marx W, McKavanagh D, McCarthy AL, Bird R, Ried K, Chan A, Isenring L. The effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on platelet aggregation: A systematic literature review. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0141119.
  • Matsumura MD, Zavorsky GS, Smoliga JM. The effects of pre-exercise ginger supplementation on muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Phytother Res. 2015;29(6):887-93.
  • Matthews A, Dowswell T, Haas DM, et al. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;CD007575.
  • Maulina T, Diana H, Cahyanto A, Amaliya A. The efficacy of curcumin in managing acute inflammation pain on the post-surgical removal of impacted third molars patients: A randomised controlled trial. J Oral Rehabil. 2018;45(9):677-683.
  • Meades G Jr, Henken RL, Waldrop GL, et al. Constituents of cinnamon inhibit bacterial acetyl CoA carboxylase. Planta Med 2010;76(14):1570-5.
  • Medsafe Safety Communication- Turmeric/Curcumin Interaction with Warfarin. April 30, 2018. Accessed at: https://medsafe.govt.nz/safety/EWS/2018/Turmeric.asp.
  • Mehta, K., Pantazis, P., McQueen, T., and Aggarwal, B. B. Antiproliferative effect of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) against human breast tumor cell lines. Anticancer Drugs 1997;8(5):470-481.
  • Meja, K. K., Rajendrasozhan, S., Adenuga, D., Biswas, S. K., Sundar, I. K., Spooner, G., Marwick, J. A., Chakravarty, P., Fletcher, D., Whittaker, P., Megson, I. L., Kirkham, P. A., and Rahman, I. Curcumin restores corticosteroid function in monocytes exposed to oxidants by maintaining HDAC2. Am.J Respir.Cell Mol.Biol. 2008;39(3):312-323.
  • Meselhy, M. R. Inhibition of LPS-induced NO production by the oleogum resin of Commiphora wightii and its constituents. Phytochemistry 2003;62(2):213-218.
  • Micklefield GH, Redeker Y, Meister V, et al. Effects of ginger on gastroduodenal motility. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;37:341-6.
  • Mirfeizi M, Mehdizadeh Tourzani Z, Mirfeizi SZ, et al. Controlling type 2 diabetes mellitus with herbal medicines: a triple-blind randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety. J Diabetes. 2016 Sep;8(5):647-56.
  • Mirhafez SR, Azimi-Nezhad M, Dehabeh M, et al. The effect of curcumin phytosome on the treatment of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1308:25-35.
  • Mirhafez SR, Dehabeh M, Hariri M, et al. Curcumin and piperine combination for the treatment of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Adv Exp Med Biol 2021;1328:11-19.
  • Mirmiranpour H, Huseini HF, Derakhshanian H, Khodaii Z, Tavakoli-Far B. Effects of probiotic, cinnamon, and synbiotic supplementation on glycemic control and antioxidant status in people with type 2 diabetes; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2019;19(1):53-60.
  • Mirzaei Dahka S, Afsharfar M, Tajaddod S, et al. Impact of Curcumin Supplementation on Radiation Dermatitis Severity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2023;24(3):783-789.
  • Mishra, R. K. and Singh, S. K. Reversible antifertility effect of aqueous rhizome extract of Curcuma longa L. in male laboratory mice. Contraception 2009;79(6):479-487.
  • Mitchell TM. Correspondence re: Somasundaram et al., Dietary curcumin inhibits chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in models of human breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2003;63(16):5165-6; author reply 5166-7.
  • Moghaddam, S. J., Barta, P., Mirabolfathinejad, S. G., Ammar-Aouchiche, Z., Garza, N. T., Vo, T. T., Newman, R. A., Aggarwal, B. B., Evans, C. M., Tuvim, M. J., Lotan, R., and Dickey, B. F. Curcumin inhibits COPD-like airway inflammation and lung cancer progression in mice. Carcinogenesis 2009;30(11):1949-1956.
  • Mohammad A, Falahi E, Mohd Yusof BN, et al. The effects of the ginger supplements on inflammatory parameters in type 2 diabetes patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021;46:66-72.
  • Mohammadbeigi R, Shahgeibi S, Soufizadeh N, et al. Comparing the effects of ginger and metoclopramide on the treatment of pregnancy nausea. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011;14:817-20.
  • Mohammadi E, Tamaddoni A, Qujeq D, et al. An investigation of the effects of curcumin on iron overload, hepcidin level, and liver function in ß-thalassemia major patients: A double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2018;32(9):1828-1835.
  • Mohammadi, A., Sahebkar, A., Iranshahi, M., Amini, M., Khojasteh, R., Ghayour-Mobarhan, M., and Ferns, G. A. Effects of supplementation with curcuminoids on dyslipidemia in obese patients: a randomized crossover trial. Phytother Res 2013;27(3):374-379.
  • Mokhtari M, Razzaghi R, Momen-Heravi M. The effects of curcumin intake on wound healing and metabolic status in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res 2020 Nov 16. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6957.
  • Molnar, V. and Garai, J. Plant-derived anti-inflammatory compounds affect MIF tautomerase activity. Int.Immunopharmacol. 2005;5(5):849-856.
  • Moon, D. O., Jin, C. Y., Lee, J. D., Choi, Y. H., Ahn, S. C., Lee, C. M., Jeong, S. C., Park, Y. M., and Kim, G. Y. Curcumin decreases binding of Shiga-like toxin-1B on human intestinal epithelial cell line HT29 stimulated with TNF-alpha and IL-1beta: suppression of p38, JNK and NF-kappaB p65 as potential targets. Biol.Pharm Bull. 2006;29(7):1470-1475.
  • Moon, D. O., Kim, M. O., Lee, H. J., Choi, Y. H., Park, Y. M., Heo, M. S., and Kim, G. Y. Curcumin attenuates ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation by regulating nitric oxide. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 10-17-2008;375(2):275-279.
  • Morin AM, Betz O, Kranke P, et al. [Is ginger a relevant antiemetic for postoperative nausea and vomiting?]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2004;39:281-5.
  • Morvaridzadeh M, Sadeghi E, Agah S, et al. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation on oxidative stress parameters: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Food Biochem. 2021;45(2):e13612.
  • Mousavi SM, Milajerdi A, Varkaneh HK, Gorjipour MM, Esmaillzadeh A. The effects of curcumin supplementation on body weight, body mass index and waist circumference: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020;60(1):171-80. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1517724.
  • Mowrey DB, Clayson DE. Motion sickness, ginger, and psychophysics. Lancet. 1982;1:655-7.
  • Mozafari S, Esmaeili S, Momenyan S, Zadeh Modarres S, Ozgoli G. Effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizome (ginger) capsule on postpartum pain: double-blind randomized clinical trial. J Res Med Sci 2021;26:105.
  • Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Talaei B, Jalali BA, Najarzadeh A, Mozayan MR. The effect of ginger powder supplementation on insulin resistance and glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2014;22(1):9-16.
  • Mrudula, T., Suryanarayana, P., Srinivas, P. N., and Reddy, G. B. Effect of curcumin on hyperglycemia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retina. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 9-21-2007;361(2):528-532.
  • Mukherjee, S., Roy, M., Dey, S., and Bhattacharya, R. K. A Mechanistic Approach for Modulation of Arsenic Toxicity in Human Lymphocytes by Curcumin, an Active Constituent of Medicinal Herb Curcuma longa Linn. J Clin Biochem.Nutr. 2007;41(1):32-42.
  • Mun, S. H., Kim, H. S., Kim, J. W., Ko, N. Y., Kim, do K., Lee, B. Y., Kim, B., Won, H. S., Shin, H. S., Han, J. W., Lee, H. Y., Kim, Y. M., and Choi, W. S. Oral administration of curcumin suppresses production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 to ameliorate collagen-induced arthritis: inhibition of the PKCdelta/JNK/c-Jun pathway. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009;111(1):13-21.
  • Murugan, P. and Pari, L. Influence of tetrahydrocurcumin on erythrocyte membrane bound enzymes and antioxidant status in experimental type 2 diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 9-25-2007;113(3):479-486.
  • Nabekura, T., Kamiyama, S., and Kitagawa, S. Effects of dietary chemopreventive phytochemicals on P-glycoprotein function. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 2-18-2005;327(3):866-870.
  • Naeini F, Tutunchi H, Razmi H, et al. Does nano-curcumin supplementation improve hematological indices in critically ill patients with sepsis? A randomized controlled clinical trial. J Food Biochem 2022;46(5):e14093.
  • Nagabhushan M, Amonkar AJ, Bhide SV. Mutagenicity of gingerol and shogaol and antimutagenicity of zingerone in Salmonella/microsome assay. Cancer Lett 1987;36:221-33..
  • Nagabhushan, M., Amonkar, A. J., and Bhide, S. V. In vitro antimutagenicity of curcumin against environmental mutagens. Food Chem.Toxicol. 1987;25(7):545-547.
  • Nakagawa Y, Mukai S, Yamada S, et al. Short-term effects of highly-bioavailable curcumin for treating knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective study. J Orthop Sci. 2014 Nov;19(6):933-9.
  • Nakagawa Y, Mukai S, Yamada S, et al. The efficacy and safety of highly-bioavailable curcumin for treating knee osteoarthritis: a 6-month open-labeled prospective study. Clin Med Insights Arthritis Musculoskelet Disord. 2020;13:1179544120948471.
  • Nakmareong, S., Kukongviriyapan, U., Pakdeechote, P., Donpunha, W., Kukongviriyapan, V., Kongyingyoes, B., Sompamit, K., and Phisalaphong, C. Antioxidant and vascular protective effects of curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin in rats with L-NAME-induced hypertension. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2011;383(5):519-529.
  • Nan, B., Lin, P., Lumsden, A. B., Yao, Q., and Chen, C. Effects of TNF-alpha and curcumin on the expression of thrombomodulin and endothelial protein C receptor in human endothelial cells. Thromb.Res 2005;115(5):417-426.
  • Nan, B., Yang, H., Yan, S., Lin, P. H., Lumsden, A. B., Yao, Q., and Chen, C. C-reactive protein decreases expression of thrombomodulin and endothelial protein C receptor in human endothelial cells. Surgery 2005;138(2):212-222.
  • Nanthakomon T, Pongrojpaw D. The efficacy of ginger in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynecologic surgery. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89:S130-6.
  • Naseri K, Saadati S, Yari Z, et al. Curcumin offers no additional benefit to lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic status in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Nutrients 2022;14(15):3224.
  • Nayak, S. and Sashidhar, R. B. Metabolic intervention of aflatoxin B1 toxicity by curcumin. J Ethnopharmacol. 2-17-2010;127(3):641-644.
  • Nayeri A, Wu S, Adams E, et al. Acute Calcineurin Inhibitor Nephrotoxicity Secondary to Turmeric Intake: A Case Report. Transplant Proc. 2017;49(1):198-200.
  • Naz, R. K. Can curcumin provide an ideal contraceptive? Mol.Reprod.Dev 2011;78(2):116-123.
  • Neerati P, Devde R, Gangi AK. Evaluation of the effect of curcumin capsules on glyburide therapy in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Phytother Res. 2014;28(12):1796-800.
  • Negi R, Sharma SK, Gaur R, Bahadur A, Jelly P. Efficacy of ginger in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cureus 2021;13(3):e13743.
  • Nemavarkar, P., Chourasia, B. K., and Pasupathy, K. Evaluation of radioprotective action of compounds using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Environ.Pathol.Toxicol Oncol. 2004;23(2):145-151.
  • Nerkar Rajbhoj A, Kulkarni TM, Shete A, Shete M, Gore R, Sapkal R. A comparative study to evaluate efficacy of curcumin and aloe vera gel along with oral physiotherapy in the management of oral submucous fibrosis: a randomized clinical trial. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021;22(S1):107-12. doi: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.S1.107.
  • Ngu MH, Norhayati MN, Rosnani Z, Zulkifli MM. Curcumin as adjuvant treatment in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Med 2022;68:102843.
  • Nguyen S, Rajfer J, Shaheen M. Safety and efficacy of daily Revactin in men with erectile dysfunction: a 3-month pilot study. Transl Androl Urol. 2018;7(2):266-73.
  • Nguyen, K. T., Shaikh, N., Shukla, K. P., Su, S. H., Eberhart, R. C., and Tang, L. Molecular responses of vascular smooth muscle cells and phagocytes to curcumin-eluting bioresorbable stent materials. Biomaterials 2004;25(23):5333-5346.
  • Nicol LM, Rowlands DS, Fazakerly R, Kellett J. Curcumin supplementation likely attenuates delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015;115(8):1769-77.
  • Nieman DC, Shanely RA, Luo B, Dew D, Meaney MP, Sha W. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial. Nutr J 2013;12(1):154.
  • Nieman DC, Shanely RA, Luo B, Dew D, Meaney MP, Sha W. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial. Nutr J 2013;12(1):154.
  • Niempoog S, Siriarchavatana P, Kajsongkram T. The efficacy of Plygersic gel for use in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. J Med Assoc Thai 2012;95 Suppl 10:S113-9.
  • Nikkhah-Bodaghi M, Maleki I, Agah S, Hekmatdoost A. Zingiber officinale and oxidative stress in patients with ulcerative colitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Complement Ther Med 2019;43:1-6.
  • Nocerino R, Cecere G, Micillo M, et al. Efficacy of ginger as antiemetic in children with acute gastroenteritis: a randomised controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021;54(1):24-31.
  • Nord D, Belew J. Effectiveness of the essential oils lavender and ginger in promoting children’s comfort in a perianesthesia setting. J Perianesth Nurs. 2009;24:307-12.
  • Nowak KL, Farmer-Bailey H, Wang W, et al. Curcumin therapy to treat vascular dysfunction in children and young adults with ADPKD: A randomized controlled trial. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2022;17(2):240-250.
  • Nyadjeu P, Dongmo A, Nguelefack TB, Kamanyi A. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark aqueous extracts. J Complement Integr Med 2011;8.
  • O’Mahony, R., Al Khtheeri, H., Weerasekera, D., Fernando, N., Vaira, D., Holton, J., and Basset, C. Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori. World J Gastroenterol. 12-21-2005;11(47):7499-7507.
  • Oetari, S., Sudibyo, M., Commandeur, J. N., Samhoedi, R., and Vermeulen, N. P. Effects of curcumin on cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat liver. Biochem Pharmacol 1-12-1996;51(1):39-45.
  • Ojewole JA. Analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) in mice and rats. Phytother Res. 2006;20:764-72.
  • Okonta JM, Uboh M, Obonga WO. Herb-Drug Interaction: A Case Study of Effect of Ginger on the Pharmacokinetic of Metronidazole in Rabbit. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India) 2008;70(230):232.
  • Okuhira H, Nakatani Y, Furukawa F, Kanazawa N. Anaphylaxis to ginger induced by herbal medicine. Allergol Int. 2020;69(1):159-160.
  • Olajide, O. A. Investigation of the effects of selected medicinal plants on experimental thrombosis. Phytother Res 1999;13(3):231-232.
  • Oliveira JdA, da Silva IC, Trindade LA, et al. Safety and tolerability of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume leaves with action on oral candidosis and its effect on the physical properties of the acylic resin. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014;2014:325670.
  • Olszanecki, R., Gebska, A., and Korbut, R. The role of haem oxygenase-1 in the decrease of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by curcumin. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007;101(6):411-415.
  • Onderoglu S, Sozer S, Erbil KM, et al. The evaluation of long-term effcts of cinnamon bark and olive leaf on toxicity induced by streptozotocin administration to rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999;51:1305-12.
  • Onogi, T., Minami, M., Kuraishi, Y., and Satoh, M. Capsaicin-like effect of (6)-shogaol on substance P-containing primary afferents of rats: a possible mechanism of its analgesic action. Neuropharmacology 1992;31(11):1165-1169.
  • Onyenekwe, P. C. Assessment of oleoresin and gingerol contents in gamma irradiated ginger rhizomes. Nahrung 2000;44(2):130-132.
  • Ozgoli G, Goli M, Moattar F. Comparison of effects of ginger, mefenamic acid, and ibuprofen on pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15:129-32.
  • Pakfetrat M, Basiri F, Malekmakan L, Roozbeh J. Effects of turmeric on uremic pruritus in end stage renal disease patients: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. J Nephrol 2014;27(2):203-7.
  • Pakniat H, Chegini V, Ranjkesh F, Hosseini MA. Comparison of the effect of vitamin E, vitamin D and ginger on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea: a single-blind clinical trial. Obstet Gynecol Sci. 2019;62(6):462-468.
  • Pakniat H, Lalooha F, Movahed F, et al. The effect of ginger and metoclopramide in the prevention of nausea and vomiting during and after surgery in cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Obstet Gynecol Sci. 2020;63(2):173-180.
  • Palatty PL, Azmidah A, Rao S, et al. Topical application of a sandal wood oil and turmeric based cream prevents radiodermatitis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy: a pilot study. Br J Radiol. 2014;87(1038):20130490.
  • Panahi Y, Karbasi A, Valizadegan G, et al. Effect of curcumin on severity of functional dyspepsia: a triple blinded clinical trial. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1308:119-126.
  • Panahi Y, Kinpour P, Mohtashami R, Jafari R, Simental-Mendia LE, Sahebkar A. Efficacy and safety of phytosomal curcumin in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2017 Apr;67(4):244-51.
  • Panahi Y, Saberi-Karimian M, Valizadeh O, et al. Effects of curcuminoids on systemic inflammation and quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer undergoing chemotherapy: A randomized controlled trial. Adv Exp Med Biol 2021;1328:1-9.
  • Panahi Y, Vahedian-Azimi A, Saadat A, et al. The effects of curcumin on the side effects of anticancer drugs in chemotherapy: A randomized controlled trial. Adv Exp Med Biol 2021;1328:255-273.
  • Panahi, Y., Sahebkar, A., Amiri, M., Davoudi, S. M., Beiraghdar, F., Hoseininejad, S. L., and Kolivand, M. Improvement of sulphur mustard-induced chronic pruritus, quality of life and antioxidant status by curcumin: results of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr 2012;108(7):1272-1279.
  • Panahi, Y., Sahebkar, A., Parvin, S., and Saadat, A. A randomized controlled trial on the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin in patients with chronic sulphur mustard-induced cutaneous complications. Ann.Clin Biochem. 2012;49(Pt 6):580-588.
  • Panchatcharam, M., Miriyala, S., Gayathri, V. S., and Suguna, L. Curcumin improves wound healing by modulating collagen and decreasing reactive oxygen species. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2006;290(1-2):87-96.
  • Pandaran Sudheeran S, Jacob D, Natinga Mulakal J, et al. Safety, Tolerance, and Enhanced Efficacy of a Bioavailable Formulation of Curcumin With Fenugreek Dietary Fiber on Occupational Stress: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2016;36(3):236-43.
  • Paramasivam, S., Thangaradjou, T., and Kannan, L. Effect of natural preservatives on the growth of histamine producing bacteria. J Environ.Biol. 2007;28(2):271-274.
  • Paramdeep G. Efficacy and tolerability of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in patients of osteoarthritis of knee. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2013;57(2):177-83.
  • Park, B. S., Kim, J. G., Kim, M. R., Lee, S. E., Takeoka, G. R., Oh, K. B., and Kim, J. H. Curcuma longa L. constituents inhibit sortase A and Staphylococcus aureus cell adhesion to fibronectin. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-16-2005;53(23):9005-9009.
  • Park, C., Moon, D. O., Choi, I. W., Choi, B. T., Nam, T. J., Rhu, C. H., Kwon, T. K., Lee, W. H., Kim, G. Y., and Choi, Y. H. Curcumin induces apoptosis and inhibits prostaglandin E(2) production in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Int.J Mol.Med. 2007;20(3):365-372.
  • Park, E. J., Jeon, C. H., Ko, G., Kim, J., and Sohn, D. H. Protective effect of curcumin in rat liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride. J Pharm Pharmacol 2000;52(4):437-440.
  • Park, M., Bae, J., and Lee, D. S. Antibacterial activity of [10]-gingerol and [12]-gingerol isolated from ginger rhizome against periodontal bacteria. Phytother.Res 2008;22(11):1446-1449.
  • Park, S. Y. and Kim, D. S. Discovery of natural products from Curcuma longa that protect cells from beta-amyloid insult: a drug discovery effort against Alzheimer’s disease. J Nat.Prod. 2002;65(9):1227-1231.
  • Parshad, R., Sanford, K. K., Price, F. M., Steele, V. E., Tarone, R. E., Kelloff, G. J., and Boone, C. W. Protective action of plant polyphenols on radiation-induced chromatid breaks in cultured human cells. Anticancer Res 1998;18(5A):3263-3266.
  • Pashine L, Singh JV, Vaish AK, Ojha SK, Mahdi AA. Effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) on overweight hyperlipidemic subjects: Double blind study. Indian J Comm Health 2012;24(2):113-117.
  • Passildas-Jahanmohan J, Eymard JC, Pouget M, et al. Multicenter randomized phase II study comparing docetaxel plus curcumin versus docetaxel plus placebo in first-line treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Med. 2021;10(7):2332-2340.
  • Patel, S. S., Shah, R. S., and Goyal, R. K. Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Dihar, a polyherbal ayurvedic formulation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2009;47(7):564-570.
  • Pattanittum P, Kunyanone N, Brown J, et al. Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;3:CD002124.
  • Patumraj, S., Wongeakin, N., Sridulyakul, P., Jariyapongskul, A., Futrakul, N., and Bunnag, S. Combined effects of curcumin and vitamin C to protect endothelial dysfunction in the iris tissue of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Clin Hemorheol.Microcirc. 2006;35(4):481-489.
  • Pavithra, B. H., Prakash, N., and Jayakumar, K. Modification of pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin following oral administration of curcumin in rabbits. J Vet.Sci. 2009;10(4):293-297.
  • Pawar KS, Mastud RN, Pawar SK, et al. Oral curcumin with piperine as adjuvant therapy for the treatment of COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:669362.
  • Peeyush, K. T., Gireesh, G., Jobin, M., and Paulose, C. S. Neuroprotective role of curcumin in the cerebellum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Life Sci. 11-4-2009;85(19-20):704-710.
  • Perez-Arriaga, L., Mendoza-Magana, M. L., Cortes-Zarate, R., Corona-Rivera, A., Bobadilla-Morales, L., Troyo-Sanroman, R., and Ramirez-Herrera, M. A. Cytotoxic effect of curcumin on Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Acta Trop. 2006;98(2):152-161.
  • Peschel, D., Koerting, R., and Nass, N. Curcumin induces changes in expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. J Nutr.Biochem. 2007;18(2):113-119.
  • Peterson DW, George RC, Scaramozzino F, et al. Cinnamon extract inhibits tau aggregation associated with Alzheimer’s disease in vitro. J Alzheimers Dis 2009;17(3):585-97.
  • Phan, P. V., Sohrabi, A., Polotsky, A., Hungerford, D. S., Lindmark, L., and Frondoza, C. G. Ginger extract components suppress induction of chemokine expression in human synoviocytes. J Altern.Complement Med 2005;11(1):149-154.
  • Phillips S, Hutchinson S, Ruggier R. Zingiber officinale does not affect gastric emptying rate. A randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Anaesthesia 1993;48:393-5.
  • Phillips S, Ruggier R, Hutchinson SE. Zingiber officinale (ginger)-an antiemetic for day case surgery. Anaesthesia 1993;48:715-7.
  • Pilapil VR. Toxic manifestations of cinnamon oil ingestion in a child. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1989;28:276..
  • Pillai AK, Sharma KK, Gupta YK, et al. Anti-emetic effect of ginger powder versus placebo as an add-on therapy in children and young adults receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011;56:234-8.
  • Pinsornsak P, Niempoog S. The efficacy of Curcuma Longa L. extract as an adjuvant therapy in primary knee osteoarthritis: a randomized control trial. J Med Assoc Thai 2012;95 Suppl 1:S51-8.
  • Platel, K. and Srinivasan, K. Influence of dietary spices and their active principles on pancreatic digestive enzymes in albino rats. Nahrung 2000;44(1):42-46.
  • Pongchaidecha, A., Lailerd, N., Boonprasert, W., and Chattipakorn, N. Effects of curcuminoid supplement on cardiac autonomic status in high-fat-induced obese rats. Nutrition 2009;25(7-8):870-878.
  • Pongrojpaw D, Chiamchanya C. The efficacy of ginger in prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynecological laparoscopy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003;86:244-50.
  • Pongrojpaw D, Somprasit C, Chanthasenanont A. A randomized comparison of ginger and dimenhydrinate in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thai 2007;90:1703-9.
  • Portincasa P, Bonfrate L, Scribano ML, et al. Curcumin and fennel essential oil improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2016 Jun;25(2):151-7.
  • Portnoi G, Chng LA, Karimi-Tabesh L, et al. Prospective comparative study of the safety and effectiveness of ginger for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:1374-7..
  • Pourhabibi-Zarandi F, Rafraf M, Zayeni H, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Ebrahimi AA. Effects of curcumin supplementation on metabolic parameters, inflammatory factors and obesity values in women with rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res 2022;36(4):1797-1806.
  • Pozzatti, P., Scheid, L. A., Spader, T. B., Atayde, M. L., Santurio, J. M., and Alves, S. H. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. Can J Microbiol. 2008;54(11):950-956.
  • Prajapati, V., Tripathi, A. K., Aggarwal, K. K., and Khanuja, S. P. Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Bioresour.Technol. 2005;96(16):1749-1757.
  • Price, R. J., Scott, M. P., Giddings, A. M., Walters, D. G., Stierum, R. H., Meredith, C., and Lake, B. G. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole on cytochrome P450 forms in cultured human hepatocytes. Xenobiotica 2008;38(6):574-586.
  • Pungcharoenkul, K. and Thongnopnua, P. Effect of different curcuminoid supplement dosages on total in vivo antioxidant capacity and cholesterol levels of healthy human subjects. Phytother Res 2011;25(11):1721-1726.
  • Punithavathi, D., Venkatesan, N., and Babu, M. Curcumin inhibition of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Br.J Pharmacol 2000;131(2):169-172.
  • Punithavathi, D., Venkatesan, N., and Babu, M. Protective effects of curcumin against amiodarone-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Br.J Pharmacol 2003;139(7):1342-1350.
  • Pushpanathan, T., Jebanesan, A., and Govindarajan, M. The essential oil of Zingiber officinalis Linn (Zingiberaceae) as a mosquito larvicidal and repellent agent against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol.Res 2008;102(6):1289-1291.
  • Qian, Q. H., Yue, W., Wang, Y. X., Yang, Z. H., Liu, Z. T., and Chen, W. H. Gingerol inhibits cisplatin-induced vomiting by down regulating 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine and substance P expression in minks. Arch Pharm.Res 2009;32(4):565-573.
  • Qiao J, Gan Y, Gong Y, et al. Combination therapy with curcumin plus tamsulosin and finasteride in the treatment of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a single center, randomized control study. Transl Androl Urol 2021;10(8):3432-3439.
  • Qiao, Jiangtao; Chen, Lihong; Kong, Lingjie; Dong, Jie; Zhou, Zhuoqiang, and Zhang, Hongcheng – Characteristic Components and Authenticity Evaluation of Rape, Acacia, and Linden Honey. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2020 68 (36), 9776-9788 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c05070
  • Qin S, Huang L, Gong J, et al. Efficacy and safety of turmeric and curcumin in lowering blood lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr J. 2017;16(1):68.
  • Qin, N. Y., Yang, F. Q., Wang, Y. T., and Li, S. P. Quantitative determination of eight components in rhizome (Jianghuang) and tuberous root (Yujin) of Curcuma longa using pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed.Anal. 1-17-2007;43(2):486-492.
  • Quale, J. M., Landman, D., Zaman, M. M., Burney, S., and Sathe, S. S. In vitro activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against azole resistant and sensitive Candida species and a pilot study of cinnamon for oral candidiasis. Am J Chin Med 1996;24(2):103-109.
  • Quiles, J. L., Mesa, M. D., Ramirez-Tortosa, C. L., Aguilera, C. M., Battino, M., Gil, A., and Ramirez-Tortosa, M. C. Curcuma longa extract supplementation reduces oxidative stress and attenuates aortic fatty streak development in rabbits. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 7-1-2002;22(7):1225-1231.
  • Rafatullah, S., Tariq, M., Al Yahya, M. A., Mossa, J. S., and Ageel, A. M. Evaluation of turmeric (Curcuma longa) for gastric and duodenal antiulcer activity in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990;29(1):25-34.
  • Rafie R, Hosseini SA, Hajiani E, Saki Malehi A, Mard SA. Effect of Ginger Powder Supplementation in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2020;13:35-45.
  • Raghava KV, Sistla KP, Narayan SJ, Yadalam U, Bose A, Mitra K. Efficacy of Curcumin as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in Chronic Periodontitis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2019;20(7):842-846.
  • Rahmani S, Asgary S, Askari G, et al. Treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with curcumin: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2016 Sep;30(9):1540-8.
  • Rahnama P, Montazeri A, Huseini HF, Kianbakht S, Naseri M. Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger) on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012;12:92.
  • Rahuman, A. A., Gopalakrishnan, G., Venkatesan, P., Geetha, K., and Bagavan, A. Mosquito larvicidal activity of isolated compounds from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale. Phytother.Res 2008;22(8):1035-1039.
  • Rai A, Kaur M, Gombra V, Hasan S, Kumar N. Comparative evaluation of curcumin and antioxidants in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. J Investig Clin Dent 2019;10(4):e12464. doi: 10.1111/jicd.12464.
  • Rai A, Kumar N, Sharma S, Parveen S, Rasheed A. Turmeric in the management of oral submucous fibrosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cancer Res Ther. 2021;17(2):327-335.
  • Rai, D., Singh, J. K., Roy, N., and Panda, D. Curcumin inhibits FtsZ assembly: an attractive mechanism for its antibacterial activity. Biochem.J 2-15-2008;410(1):147-155.
  • Rainey-Smith SR, Brown BM, Sohrabi HR, et al. Curcumin and cognition: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of community-dwelling older adults. Br J Nutr. 2016;115(12):2106-13.
  • Ram, A., Das, M., and Ghosh, B. Curcumin attenuates allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in sensitized guinea pigs. Biol.Pharm Bull. 2003;26(7):1021-1024.
  • Raman P, Pitty R, Krithika CL, Anand SPN, Subramani GP. Topical curcumin and triamcinolone acetonide in recurrent minor aphthous ulcers: a pilot trial. J Contemp Dent Pract 2020;21(8):884-90.
  • Ramaswami, G., Chai, H., Yao, Q., Lin, P. H., Lumsden, A. B., and Chen, C. Curcumin blocks homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in porcine coronary arteries. J Vasc.Surg. 2004;40(6):1216-1222.
  • Ramezani V, Ghadirian S, Shabani M, Boroumand MA, Daneshvar R, Saghafi F. Efficacy of curcumin for amelioration of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a preliminary randomized controlled clinical trial. BMC Cancer 2023;23(1):354.
  • Ramirez-Bosca, A., Soler, A., Carrion, M. A., Diaz-Alperi, J., Bernd, A., Quintanilla, C., Quintanilla, Almagro E., and Miquel, J. An hydroalcoholic extract of curcuma longa lowers the apo B/apo A ratio. Implications for atherogenesis prevention. Mech.Ageing Dev. 10-20-2000;119(1-2):41-47.
  • Ramirez-Tortosa, M. C., Ramirez-Tortosa, C. L., Mesa, M. D., Granados, S., Gil, A., and Quiles, J. L. Curcumin ameliorates rabbits’s steatohepatitis via respiratory chain, oxidative stress, and TNF-alpha. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 10-1-2009;47(7):924-931.
  • Rana IS, Singh A, Gwal R. In vitro study of antibacterial activity of aromatic and medicinal plants essential oils with special reference to cinnamon oil. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:376-80.
  • Ranasinghe P, Galappaththy P. Health benefits of Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a summary of the current evidence. Ceylon Med J 2016;61(1):1-5.
  • Ranasinghe P, Jayawardana R, Galappaththy P, et al. Efficacy and safety of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) as a pharmaceutical agent in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med 2012;29(12):1480-92.
  • Ranasinghe P, Jayawardena R, Galappaththy P, et al. Response to Akilen et al. Efficacy and safety of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) as a pharmaceutical agent in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med 2013 Apr;30(4):506-7.
  • Ranasinghe P, Jayawardena R, Pigera S, et al. Evaluation of pharmacodynamic properties and safety of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) in healthy adults: a phase I clinical trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2017;17(1):550.
  • Ranasinghe P, Pigera S, Premakumara GA, et al. Medicinal properties of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013;13:275.
  • Ranjan, D., Siquijor, A., Johnston, T. D., Wu, G., and Nagabhuskahn, M. The effect of curcumin on human B-cell immortalization by Epstein-Barr virus. Am Surg 1998;64(1):47-51.
  • Rao HJ, Lakshmi. Anti-diarrhoeal activity of the aqueous extract of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum linn in mice. J Clin Diagn Res 2012;6:117-24.
  • Rao S, Dinkar C, Vaishnav LK, Rao P, Rai MP, Fayad R, Baliga MS. The Indian Spice Turmeric Delays and Mitigates Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis in Patients Undergoing Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer: An Investigational Study. Integr Cancer Ther 2013;13(3):201-210.
  • Rao, C. V., Simi, B., and Reddy, B. S. Inhibition by dietary curcumin of azoxymethane-induced ornithine decarboxylase, tyrosine protein kinase, arachidonic acid metabolism and aberrant crypt foci formation in the rat colon. Carcinogenesis 1993;14(11):2219-2225.
  • Rastogi, M., Ojha, R. P., Rajamanickam, G. V., Agrawal, A., Aggarwal, A., and Dubey, G. P. Curcuminoids modulates oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic rat brain. Free Radic.Res 2008;42(11-12):999-1005.
  • Rasyid A, Rahman AR, Jaalam K, Lelo A. Effect of different curcumin dosages on human gall bladder. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2002;11:314-8.
  • Rasyid, A. and Lelo, A. The effect of curcumin and placebo on human gall-bladder function: an ultrasound study. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther. 1999;13(2):245-249.
  • Reyes-Gordillo, K., Segovia, J., Shibayama, M., Tsutsumi, V., Vergara, P., Moreno, M. G., and Muriel, P. Curcumin prevents and reverses cirrhosis induced by bile duct obstruction or CCl4 in rats: role of TGF-beta modulation and oxidative stress. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol 2008;22(4):417-427.
  • Reyes-Gordillo, K., Segovia, J., Shibayama, M., Vergara, P., Moreno, M. G., and Muriel, P. Curcumin protects against acute liver damage in the rat by inhibiting NF-kappaB, proinflammatory cytokines production and oxidative stress. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2007;1770(6):989-996.
  • Rezaie S, Askari G, Khorvash F, Tarrahi MJ, Amani R. Effects of curcumin supplementation on clinical features and inflammation, in migraine patients: A double-blind controlled, placebo randomized clinical trial. Int J Prev Med 2021;12:161.
  • Rezvani, M. and Ross, G. A. Modification of radiation-induced acute oral mucositis in the rat. Int.J Radiat.Biol. 2004;80(2):177-182.
  • Rithaporn, T., Monga, M., and Rajasekaran, M. Curcumin: a potential vaginal contraceptive. Contraception 2003;68(3):219-223.
  • Roberts AT, Martin CK, Liu Z, et al. The safety and efficacy of a dietary herbal supplement and gallic acid for weight loss. J Med Food. 2007;10:184-8.
  • Romero, M. R., Efferth, T., Serrano, M. A., Castano, B., Macias, R. I., Briz, O., and Marin, J. J. Effect of artemisinin/artesunate as inhibitors of hepatitis B virus production in an “in vitro” replicative system. Antiviral Res 2005;68(2):75-83.
  • Romiti, N., Tongiani, R., Cervelli, F., and Chieli, E. Effects of curcumin on P-glycoprotein in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Life Sci. 1998;62(25):2349-2358.
  • Rosti L, Gastaldi G, Frigiola A. Cinnamon and bacterial enteric infections. Indian J Pediatr 2008;75(5).
  • Rosti L, Gastaldi G. Chronic salmonellosis and cinnamon. Pediatrics 2005;116:1057.
  • Rózanski G, Tabisz H, Zalewska M, et al. Meta-Analysis of Exploring the Effect of Curcumin Supplementation with or without Other Advice on Biochemical and Anthropometric Parameters in Patients with Metabolic-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD). Int J Environ Res Public Health 2023;20(5):4266.
  • Rudrappa GH, Chakravarthi PT, Benny IR. Efficacy of high-dissolution turmeric-sesame formulation for pain relief in adult subjects with acute musculoskeletal pain compared to acetaminophen: A randomized controlled study. Medicine. 2020;99(28):e20373.
  • Rudrappa GH, Murthy M, Saklecha S, Kumar Kare S, Gupta A, Basu I. Fast pain relief in exercise-induced acute musculoskeletal pain by turmeric-boswellia formulation: A randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded multicentre study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2022;101(35):e30144.
  • Rukkumani, R., Aruna, K., Varma, P. S., and Menon, V. P. Curcumin influences hepatic expression patterns of matrix metalloproteinases in liver toxicity. Ital.J Biochem. 2004;53(2):61-66.
  • Ryan JL, Heckler CE, Roscoe JA, et al. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces acute chemotherapy-induced nausea: a URCC CCOP study of 576 patients. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20:1479-89.
  • Saadipoor A, Razzaghdoust A, Simforoosh N, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial of nanocurcumin in prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Phytother Res. 2019;33(2):370-378.
  • Saber-Moghaddam N, Salari S, Hejazi S, et al. Oral nano-curcumin formulation efficacy in management of mild to moderate hospitalized coronavirus disease-19 patients: An open label nonrandomized clinical trial. Phytother Res 2021 Jan 3. doi: 10.1002/ptr.7004.
  • Saberi-Karimian M, Ghazizadeh H, Mohammadzadeh E, Ferns GA, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Sahebkar A. Does curcumin have an effect on sleep duration in metabolic syndrome patients? Avicenna J Phytomed. 2021;11(2):190-198.
  • Saeedi F, Farkhondeh T, Roshanravan B, Amirabadizadeh A, Ashrafizadeh M, Samarghandian S. Curcumin and blood lipid levels: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Arch Physiol Biochem 2022;128(6):1493-1502.
  • Saeidnia M, Fazeli P, Erfani M, Nowrouzi-Sohrabi P, Tamaddon G, Karimi M. The Effect of Curcumin on Iron Overload in Patients with Beta-Thalassemia Intermedia. Clin Lab 2022;68(3).
  • Sahib AS. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome using a selected herbal combination of Iraqi folk medicines. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;148(3):1008-12.
  • Sahin, Kavakli H., Koca, C., and Alici, O. Antioxidant effects of curcumin in spinal cord injury in rats. Ulus.Travma.Acil.Cerrahi.Derg. 2011;17(1):14-18.
  • Salehi M, Mashhadi NS, Esfahani PS, Feizi A, Hadi A, Askari G. The Effects of Curcumin Supplementation on Muscle Damage, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy Females with Moderate Physical Activity: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Int J Prev Med 2021;12:94.
  • Salh, B. S., Assi, K., Templeman, V., Parhar, K., Owen, D., Gomez-Munoz, A., and Jacobson, K. Curcumin attenuates DNB-induced murine colitis. Am.J Physiol Gastrointest.Liver Physiol 3-13-2003;
  • Samarasekera R, Kalhari KS, Weerasinghe IS. Mosquitocidal acitivy of leaf and bark essential oils of Ceylon cinnamomum zeylanicum. J Essent Oil Res 2005;17:301-3.
  • Sambaiah, K. and Srinivasan, K. Effect of cumin, cinnamon, ginger, mustard and tamarind in induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Nahrung 1991;35(1):47-51.
  • Sanaati F, Najafi S, Kashaninia Z, Sadeghi M. Effect of Ginger and Chamomile on Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Chemotherapy in Iranian Women with Breast Cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(8):4125-9.
  • Sangouni AA, Taghdir M, Mirahmadi J, Sepandi M, Parastouei K. Effects of curcumin and/or coenzyme Q10 supplementation on metabolic control in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. Nutr J 2022;21(1):62.
  • Sanmukhani J, Satodia V, Trivedi J, Patel T, Tiwari D, Panchal B, Goel A, Tripathi CB. Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Phytother Res 2014;28(4):579-85.
  • Sarris J, Ravindran A, Yatham LN, et al. Clinician guidelines for the treatment of psychiatric disorders with nutraceuticals and phytoceuticals: The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) and Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) Taskforce. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2022;23(6):424-455.
  • Satoskar, R. R., Shah, S. J., and Shenoy, S. G. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) in patients with postoperative inflammation. Int.J Clin Pharmacol Ther.Toxicol. 1986;24(12):651-654.
  • Sawangroj N, Budkaew J, Chumworathayi B. Efficacy of Curcuma longa in treatment of postprandial distress syndrome: an open-label randomized-controlled trial. F1000Res 2019;8:1827. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.20662.1.
  • Schechter JO. Treatment of disequilibrium and nausea in the SRI discontinuation syndrome. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59:431-2.
  • Schmid R, Schick T, Steffen R, et al. Comparison of seven commonly used agents for prophylaxis of seasickness. J Travel Med 1994;1:102-106.
  • Schwertner, H. A., Rios, D. C., and Pascoe, J. E. Variation in concentration and labeling of ginger root dietary supplements. Obstet.Gynecol. 2006;107(6):1337-1343.
  • Scontre VA, Martins JC, de Melo Sette CV, et al. Curcuma longa (Turmeric) for Prevention of Capecitabine-Induced Hand-Foot Syndrome: A Pilot Study. J Diet Suppl. 2018;15(5):606-612.
  • Sekiya, K., Ohtani, A., and Kusano, S. Enhancement of insulin sensitivity in adipocytes by ginger. Biofactors 2004;22(1-4):153-156.
  • Seo, K. I., Choi, M. S., Jung, U. J., Kim, H. J., Yeo, J., Jeon, S. M., and Lee, M. K. Effect of curcumin supplementation on blood glucose, plasma insulin, and glucose homeostasis related enzyme activities in diabetic db/db mice. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2008;52(9):995-1004.
  • Shafabakhsh R, Asemi Z, Reiner Z, Soleimani A, Aghadavod E, Bahmani F. The effects of nano-curcumin on metabolic status in patients with diabetes on hemodialysis, a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2020;14(4):290-9.
  • Shah BH, Nawaz Z, Pertani SA. Inhibitory effect of curcumin, a food spice from turmeric, on platelet-activating factor- and arachidonic acid-mediated platelet aggregation through inhibition of thromboxane formation and Ca2+ signaling. Biochem Pharmacol 1999;58:1167-72..
  • Shah S, Rath H, Sharma G, Senapati SN, Mishra E. Effectiveness of curcumin mouthwash on radiation-induced oral mucositis among head and neck cancer patients: a triple-blind, pilot randomised controlled trial. Indian J Dent Res 2020;31(5):718-27.
  • Shahiduzzaman, M., Dyachenko, V., Khalafalla, R. E., Desouky, A. Y., and Daugschies, A. Effects of curcumin on Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro. Parasitol.Res 2009;105(4):1155-1161.
  • Shalansky S, Lynd L, Richardson K, et al. Risk of warfarin-related bleeding events and supratherapeutic international normalized ratios associated with complementary and alternative medicine: a longitudinal analysis. Pharmacotherapy. 2007;27:1237-47.
  • Shariatpanahi ZV, Taleban FA, Mokhtari M, et al. Ginger extract reduces delayed gastric emptying and nosocomial pneumonia in adult respiratory distress syndrome patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit. J Crit Care. 2010;25:647-50.
  • Sharma, R., A. McLelland, H. R., Hill, K. A., et al. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study of oral Curcuma extract in patients with colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2001;7:1894-900..
  • Sharma, R. A., Euden, S. A., Platton, S. L., Cooke, D. N., Shafayat, A., Hewitt, H. R., Marczylo, T. H., Morgan, B., Hemingway, D., Plummer, S. M., Pirmohamed, M., Gescher, A. J., and Steward, W. P. Phase I clinical trial of oral curcumin: biomarkers of systemic activity and compliance. Clin Cancer Res 10-15-2004;10(20):6847-6854.
  • Sharma, S. S. and Gupta, Y. K. Reversal of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale). J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;62(1):49-55.
  • Sharma, S., Kulkarni, S. K., Agrewala, J. N., and Chopra, K. Curcumin attenuates thermal hyperalgesia in a diabetic mouse model of neuropathic pain. Eur.J Pharmacol 5-1-2006;536(3):256-261.
  • Sheikhhossein F, Borazjani M, Jafari A, et al. Effects of ginger supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021;45:111-9.
  • Shen W, Qu Y, Jiang H, et al. Therapeutic effect and safety of curcumin in women with PCOS: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022;13:1051111.
  • Shen, C. L., Hong, K. J., and Kim, S. W. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) on decreasing the production of inflammatory mediators in sow osteoarthrotic cartilage explants. J Med Food 2003;6(4):323-328.
  • Shenouda, N. S., Zhou, C., Browning, J. D., Ansell, P. J., Sakla, M. S., Lubahn, D. B., and MacDonald, R. S. Phytoestrogens in common herbs regulate prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. Nutr.Cancer 2004;49(2):200-208.
  • Shimmyo, Y., Kihara, T., Akaike, A., Niidome, T., and Sugimoto, H. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and curcumin suppress amyloid beta-induced beta-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 upregulation. Neuroreport 8-27-2008;19(13):1329-1333.
  • Shimouchi, A., Nose, K., Takaoka, M., Hayashi, H., and Kondo, T. Effect of dietary turmeric on breath hydrogen. Dig.Dis.Sci. 2009;54(8):1725-1729.
  • Shin, S. G., Kim, J. Y., Chung, H. Y., and Jeong, J. C. Zingerone as an antioxidant against peroxynitrite. J Agric.Food Chem. 9-21-2005;53(19):7617-7622.
  • Shirvani MA, Motahari-Tabari N, Alipour A. The effect of mefenamic acid and ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015;291(6):1277-81.
  • Shirzad F, Morovatdar N, Rezaee R, Tsarouhas K, Abdollahi Moghadam A. Cinnamon effects on blood pressure and metabolic profile: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with stage 1 hypertension. Avicenna J Phytomed 2021;11(1):91-100.
  • Shoba, G., Joy, D., Joseph, T., Majeed, M., Rajendran, R., and Srinivas, P. S. Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med 1998;64(4):353-356.
  • Shoskes, D. A. Effect of bioflavonoids quercetin and curcumin on ischemic renal injury: a new class of renoprotective agents. Transplantation 7-27-1998;66(2):147-152.
  • Shu, J. C., He, Y. J., Lv, X., Ye, G. R., and Wang, L. X. Curcumin prevents liver fibrosis by inducing apoptosis and suppressing activation of hepatic stellate cells. J Nat.Med. 2009;63(4):415-420.
  • Shubha, M. C., Reddy, R. R., and Srinivasan, K. Antilithogenic influence of dietary capsaicin and curcumin during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstone in mice. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2011;36(2):201-209.
  • Sihombing AT, Prabharani D, Lukman K, Sudjud RW. The effectiveness of ginger extract addition in calorified drinks during perioperative period to nausea severity, vomitus, post-operative anxiety, and metabolic disorder: A randomized control trial. Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2022 Nov 11;84:104865.
  • Simental-Mendía LE, Pirro M, Gotto AM Jr, et al. Lipid-modifying activity of curcuminoids: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017:1-10.
  • Simon A, Darcsi A, Kéry Á, Riethmüller E. Blood-brain barrier permeability study of ginger constituents. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2020;177:112820.
  • Singh M, Singh N. Curcumin counteracts the proliferative effect of estradiol and induces apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;347(1-2):1-11.
  • Singh R, Koppikar SJ, Paul P, et al. Comparative analysis of cytotoxic effect of aqueous cinnamon extract from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark with commercial cinnamaldehyde on various cell lines. Pharm Biol 2009;47:1174-9.
  • Singla V, Pratap Mouli V, Garg SK, Rai T, Choudhury BN, Verma P, Deb R, Tiwari V, Rohatgi S, Dhingra R, Kedia S, Sharma PK, Makharia G, Ahuja V. Induction with NCB-02 (curcumin) enema for mild-to-moderate distal ulcerative colitis – a randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study. J Crohns Colitis 2014;8(3):208-14.
  • Sivalingam, N., Hanumantharaya, R., Faith, M., Basivireddy, J., Balasubramanian, K. A., and Jacob, M. Curcumin reduces indomethacin-induced damage in the rat small intestine. J Appl.Toxicol 2007;27(6):551-560.
  • Skiba MB, Luis PB, Alfarara C, Billheimer D, Schneider C, Funk JL. Curcuminoid content and safety-related markers of quality of turmeric dietary supplements sold in an urban retail marketplace in the United States. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018 May 29:e1800143 [Epub ahead of print]
  • Small GW, Siddarth P, Li Z, et al. Memory and brain amyloid and tau effects of a bioavailable form of curcumin in non-demented adults: A double-blind, placebo-controlled 18-month trial. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2018;26(3):266-277.
  • Smith C, Crowther C, Willson K, et al. A randomized controlled trial of ginger to treat nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004;103:639-45.
  • Smith, M. R., Gangireddy, S. R., Narala, V. R., Hogaboam, C. M., Standiford, T. J., Christensen, P. J., Kondapi, A. K., and Reddy, R. C. Curcumin inhibits fibrosis-related effects in IPF fibroblasts and in mice following bleomycin-induced lung injury. Am.J Physiol Lung Cell Mol.Physiol 1-8-2010;
  • Sohal A, Alhankawi D, Sandhu S, Chintanaboina J. Turmeric-induced hepatotoxicity: Report of 2 cases. Int Med Case Rep J 2021;14:849-852.
  • Sohrevardi SM, Heydari B, Azarpazhooh MR, et al. Therapeutic effect of curcumin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome receiving metformin: A randomized controlled trial. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1308:109-117.
  • Somasundaram S, Edmund NA, Moore DT, Small GW, Shi YY, Orlowski RZ. Dietary curcumin inhibits chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in models of human breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2002;62(13):3868-75.
  • Song, E. K., Cho, H., Kim, J. S., Kim, N. Y., An, N. H., Kim, J. A., Lee, S. H., and Kim, Y. C. Diarylheptanoids with free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective activity in vitro from Curcuma longa. Planta Med. 2001;67(9):876-877.
  • Soni TP, Gupta AK, Sharma LM, Singhal H, Sharma S, Gothwal RS. A randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of bio-enhanced turmeric formulation on radiation-induced oral mucositis. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2021:1-11.
  • Soni, K. B., Rajan, A., and Kuttan, R. Reversal of aflatoxin induced liver damage by turmeric and curcumin. Cancer Lett. 9-30-1992;66(2):115-121.
  • Sood, A., Mathew, R., and Trachtman, H. Cytoprotective effect of curcumin in human proximal tubule epithelial cells exposed to shiga toxin. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 4-27-2001;283(1):36-41.
  • Sotanaphun, U., Phattanawasin, P., and Sriphong, L. Application of Scion image software to the simultaneous determination of curcuminoids in turmeric (Curcuma longa). Phytochem.Anal. 2009;20(1):19-23.
  • Sreejayan and Rao, M. N. Curcuminoids as potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation. J Pharm Pharmacol 1994;46(12):1013-1016.
  • Srichairatanakool, S., Thephinlap, C., Phisalaphong, C., Porter, J. B., and Fucharoen, S. Curcumin contributes to in vitro removal of non-transferrin bound iron by deferiprone and desferrioxamine in thalassemic plasma. Med.Chem. 2007;3(5):469-474.
  • Srinivasan A, Selvarajan S, Kamalanathan S, Kadhiravan T, Prasanna Lakshmi NC, Adithan S. Effect of Curcuma longa on vascular function in native Tamilians with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, double-blind, parallel arm, placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2019;33(7):1898-1911.
  • Srinivasan K and Sambaiah K. The effect of spices on cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity and on serum and hepatic cholesterol levels in the rat. Internat J Vit Nutr Res 1991;61:364-369.
  • Srinivasan, M. Effect of curcumin on blood sugar as seen in a diabetic subject. Indian J Med Sci 1972;26(4):269-270.
  • Srinivasan, M., Sudheer, A. R., Rajasekaran, K. N., and Menon, V. P. Effect of curcumin analog on gamma-radiation-induced cellular changes in primary culture of isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro. Chem.Biol.Interact. 10-22-2008;176(1):1-8.
  • Sripramote, M. and Lekhyananda, N. A randomized comparison of ginger and vitamin B6 in the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. J Med Assoc.Thai. 2003;86(9):846-853.
  • Srivastava, K. C., Mustafa, T. – Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and rheumatic disorders. Med Hypotheses 1989;29:25-8.
  • Srivastava, K. C. Effect of onion and ginger consumption on platelet thromboxane production in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1989;35:183-5.
  • Srivastava, K. C. – Extracts from two frequently consumed spices–cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa)–inhibit platelet aggregation and alter eicosanoid biosynthesis in human blood platelets. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1989;37(1):57-64.
  • Srivastava, K. C. – Isolation and effects of some ginger components on platelet aggregation and eicosanoid biosynthesis. Prostaglandins Leukot.Med. 1986;25(2-3):187-198.
  • Srivastava, K. C., Bordia, A., and Verma, S. K. – Curcumin, a major component of food spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) inhibits aggregation and alters eicosanoid metabolism in human blood platelets. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1995;52(4):223-227.
  • Srivastava, R., Dikshit, M., Srimal, R. C., and Dhawan, B. N. Anti-thrombotic effect of curcumin. Thromb.Res 11-1-1985;40(3):413-417.
  • Srivastava, R., Puri, V., Srimal, R. C., and Dhawan, B. N. Effect of curcumin on platelet aggregation and vascular prostacyclin synthesis. Arzneimittelforschung. 1986;36(4):715-717.
  • Steels E, Steels E, Deshpande P, Thakurdesai P, Dighe S, Collet T. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study of intranasal standardized cinnamon bark extract for seasonal allergic rhinitis. Complement Ther Med. 2019;47:102198.
  • Sterzi S, Giordani L, Morrone M, Lena E, et al. The efficacy and safety of a combination of glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate, and bio-circumin with exercise in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2016 Jun;52(3):321-30.
  • Stewart JJ, Wood MJ, Wood CD, Mims ME. Effects of ginger on motion sickness susceptibility and gastric function. Pharmacology 1991;42:111-20.
  • Suekawa M, Ishige A, Yuasa K, et al. Pharmacological studies on ginger. I. Pharmacological actions of pungent constitutents, (6)-gingerol and (6)-shogaol. J Pharmacobiodyn 1984;7:836-48.
  • Sugimoto, K., Hanai, H., Tozawa, K., Aoshi, T., Uchijima, M., Nagata, T., and Koide, Y. Curcumin prevents and ameliorates trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice. Gastroenterology 2002;123(6):1912-1922.
  • Sugiyama T, Nagata J, Yamagishi A, et al. Selective protection of curcumin against carbon tetrachloride-induced inactivation of hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes in rats. Life Sci 2006;78:2188-93.
  • Suhail FK, Masood U, Sharma A, John S, Dhamoon A. Turmeric supplement induced hepatotoxicity: a rare complication of a poorly regulated substance. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2020;58(3):216-217.
  • Sumiyoshi, M. and Kimura, Y. Effects of a turmeric extract (Curcuma longa) on chronic ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage in melanin-possessing hairless mice. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(12):1137-1143.
  • Surh YJ. Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:1091-7.
  • Suzuki, M., Betsuyaku, T., Ito, Y., Nagai, K., Odajima, N., Moriyama, C., Nasuhara, Y., and Nishimura, M. Curcumin attenuates elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice. Am.J Physiol Lung Cell Mol.Physiol 2009;296(4):L614-L623.
  • Tabaee S, Sahebkar A, Aghamohammadi T, et al. The effects of curcumin plus piperine supplementation in patients with acute myocardial infarction: A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled Trial. Adv Exp Med Biol 2021;1328:199-211.
  • Tabrizi R, Vakili S, Akbari M, et al. The effects of curcumin-containing supplements on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytother Res. 2019;33(2):253-262.
  • Takada Y, Bhardwaj A, Potdar P, Aggarwal BB. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents differ in their ability to suppress NF-kappaB activation, inhibition of expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclin D1, and abrogation of tumor cell proliferation. Oncogene 2004;23:9247-58.
  • Takahashi M, Li W, Koike K, et al. Clinical effectiveness of KSS formula, a traditional folk remedy for alcohol hangover symptoms. J Nat Med. 2010;64:487-91.
  • Takasao N, Tsuji-Naito K, Ishikura S, et al. Cinnamon extract promotes type I collagen biosynthesis via activation of IGF-I signaling in human dermal fibroblasts. J Agric Food Chem 2012;60(5):1193-200.
  • Talaei B, Amouzegar A, Sahranavard S, Hedayati M, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. Effects of cinnamon consumption on glycemic indicators, advanced glycation end products, and antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic patients. Nutrients. 2017 Sep 8;9(9). Pii:E991.
  • Talakesh T, Tabatabaee N, Atoof F, et al. Effect of nano-curcumin on radiotherapy-induced skin reaction in breast cancer patients: A randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Curr Radiopharm 2022.
  • Tamokou, J. D. D.; Kuiate, J. R.; Tene, M; Nwemeguela, T. J. K.; Tane, P, – Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2011 Feb;36(1):33-40. The effect of Tilia tomentosa honey on tracheal mucus secretion in rats.
  • Tanaka, K., Kuba, Y., Sasaki, T., Hiwatashi, F., and Komatsu, K. Quantitation of curcuminoids in curcuma rhizome by near-infrared spectroscopic analysis. J Agric.Food Chem. 10-8-2008;56(19):8787-8792.
  • Tang, X. Q., Bi, H., Feng, J. Q., and Cao, J. G. Effect of curcumin on multidrug resistance in resistant human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC7901/VCR. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005;26(8):1009-1016.
  • Tang, Y. H., Bao, M. W., Yang, B., Zhang, Y., Zhang, B. S., Zhou, Q., Chen, J. L., and Huang, C. X. [Curcumin attenuates left ventricular dysfunction and remodeling in rabbits with chronic heart failure.]. Zhonghua Xin.Xue.Guan.Bing.Za Zhi. 2009;37(3):262-267.
  • Tanwar, V., Sachdeva, J., Golechha, M., Kumari, S., and Arya, D. S. Curcumin protects rat myocardium against isoproterenol-induced ischemic injury: attenuation of ventricular dysfunction through increased expression of Hsp27 along with strengthening antioxidant defense system. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2010;55(4):377-384.
  • Tanwar, V., Sachdeva, J., Kishore, K., Mittal, R., Nag, T. C., Ray, R., Kumari, S., and Arya, D. S. Dose-dependent actions of curcumin in experimentally induced myocardial necrosis: a biochemical, histopathological, and electron microscopic evidence. Cell Biochem.Funct. 2010;28(1):74-82.
  • Tao, Q. F., Xu, Y., Lam, R. Y., Schneider, B., Dou, H., Leung, P. S., Shi, S. Y., Zhou, C. X., Yang, L. X., Zhang, R. P., Xiao, Y. C., Wu, X., Stockigt, J., Zeng, S., Cheng, C. H., and Zhao, Y. Diarylheptanoids and a monoterpenoid from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale: antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. J Nat.Prod. 2008;71(1):12-17.
  • Tatapudi R, Abdul Samad SK, Manyam R, Dasari D, Lakshmi RV. Efficacy of curcumin in the treatment of denture stomatitis: A randomized double-blind study. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2021;25(2):286-291.
  • Tavlan A, Tuncer S, Erol A, et al. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after thyroidectomy: combined antiemetic treatment with dexamethasone and ginger versus dexamethasone alone. Clin Drug Investig. 2006;26:209-14.
  • Tayel, A. A. and El Tras, W. F. Possibility of fighting food borne bacteria by egyptian folk medicinal herbs and spices extracts. J Egypt.Public Health Assoc. 2009;84(1-2):21-32.
  • Teichmann, A., Heuschkel, S., Jacobi, U., Presse, G., Neubert, R. H., Sterry, W., and Lademann, J. Comparison of stratum corneum penetration and localization of a lipophilic model drug applied in an o/w microemulsion and an amphiphilic cream. Eur.J Pharm Biopharm. 2007;67(3):699-706.
  • Terby S, Shereef M, Ramanarayanan V, Balakrishnan B. The effect of curcumin as an adjunct in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Saudi Dent J 2021;33(7):375-385.
  • Terry R, Posadzki P, Watson LK, Ernst E. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale) for the treatment of pain: a systematic review of clinical trials. Pain Med 2011;12:1808-18.
  • Thaloor D, Singh AK, Sidhu GS, et al. Inhibition of angiogenic differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by curcumin. Cell Growth Differ 1998;9:305-12..
  • Thamlikitkul L, Srimuninnimit V, Akewanlop C, et al. Efficacy of ginger for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients receiving adriamycin-cyclophosphamide regimen: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Support Care Cancer. 2017;25(2):459-464.
  • Thamlikitkul V, Bunyapraphatsara N, Dechatiwongse T, et al. Randomized double blind study of Curcuma domestica Val. for dyspepsia. J Med Assoc Thai 1989;72:613-20..
  • Thanawala S, Shah R, Alluri KV, Somepalli V, Vaze S, Upadhyay V. Comparative bioavailability of curcuminoids from a water-dispersible high curcuminoid turmeric extract against a generic turmeric extract: a randomized, cross-over, comparative, pharmacokinetic study. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2021;73(6):816-823.
  • Thanawala S, Shah R, Somepalli V, Alluri KV, Desomayanandam P, Bhuvanendran A. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessing efficacy and safety of a novel low-dose turmeric extract formulation in healthy adults with chronic knee pain. Clin Pharmacol. 2021;13:91-100.
  • Thapliyal R, Deshpande SS, Maru GB. Mechanism(s) of turmeric-mediated protective effects against benzo(a)pyrene-derived DNA adducts. Cancer Lett 2002;175:79-88.
  • Thapliyal R, Maru GB. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 isozymes by curcumins in vitro and in vivo. Food Chem Toxicol 2001;39:541-7.
  • Thomas R, Williams M, Sharma H, Chaudry A, Bellamy P. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial evaluating the effect of a polyphenol-rich whole food supplement on PSA progression in men with prostate cancer–the U.K. NCRN Pomi-T study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2014;17(2):180-6.
  • Thompson, D. A. and Tan, B. B. Tetrahydracurcumin-related allergic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 2006;55(4):254-255.
  • Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Al-Sawan SM, et al. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2002;67:475-8.
  • Thomson M, Corbin R, Leung L. Effects of ginger for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a meta-analysis. J Am Board Fam Med 2014;27(1):115-22.
  • Thongson, C., Davidson, P. M., Mahakarnchanakul, W., and Vibulsresth, P. Antimicrobial effect of Thai spices against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium DT104. J Food Prot. 2005;68(10):2054-2058.
  • Thongson, C., Davidson, P. M., Mahakarnchanakul, W., and Vibulsresth, P. Antimicrobial effect of Thai spices against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium DT104. J Food Prot. 2005;68(10):2054-2058.
  • Thresiamma, K. C., George, J., and Kuttan, R. Protective effect of curcumin, ellagic acid and bixin on radiation induced genotoxicity. J Exp.Clin Cancer Res 1998;17(4):431-434.
  • Tian, Y. M., Zhou, D., Zhang, W., and Cheng, C. G. [Comparison and correlative analysis of trace elements in five kinds of radix curcumae]. Guang.Pu.Xue.Yu Guang.Pu.Fen.Xi. 2008;28(9):2192-2195.
  • Tikoo, K., Meena, R. L., Kabra, D. G., and Gaikwad, A. B. Change in post-translational modifications of histone H3, heat-shock protein-27 and MAP kinase p38 expression by curcumin in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic nephropathy. Br.J Pharmacol 2008;153(6):1225-1231.
  • Tirkey, N., Kaur, G., Vij, G., and Chopra, K. Curcumin, a diferuloylmethane, attenuates cyclosporine-induced renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in rat kidneys. BMC.Pharmacol 2005;5:15.
  • Tosun B, Unal N, Yigit D, Can N, Aslan O, Tunay S. Effects of Self-Knee Massage With Ginger Oil in Patients With Osteoarthritis: An Experimental Study. Res Theory Nurs Pract. 2017;31(4):379-392.
  • Tóth B, Lantos T, Hegyi P, et al. Ginger (Zingiber officinale): An alternative for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. A meta-analysis. Phytomedicine. 2018 Nov 15;50:8-18. Epub 2018 Sep 5.
  • Tsai IC, Hsu CW, Chang CH, Tseng PT, Chang KV. The effect of curcumin differs on individual cognitive domains across different patient populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021;14(12):1235.
  • Tsuji-Naito K. Aldehydic components of cinnamon bark extract suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through NFATc1 downregulation. Bioorg Med Chem 2008;16(20):9176-83.
  • Tuntipopipat, S., Judprasong, K., Zeder, C., Wasantwisut, E., Winichagoon, P., Charoenkiatkul, S., Hurrell, R., and Walczyk, T. Chili, but not turmeric, inhibits iron absorption in young women from an iron-fortified composite meal. J Nutr. 2006;136(12):2970-2974.
  • Tuntipopipat, S., Zeder, C., Siriprapa, P., and Charoenkiatkul, S. Inhibitory effects of spices and herbs on iron availability. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 1:43-55.
  • Ukil, A., Maity, S., Karmakar, S., Datta, N., Vedasiromoni, J. R., and Das, P. K. Curcumin, the major component of food flavour turmeric, reduces mucosal injury in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis. Br.J Pharmacol 2003;139(2):209-218.
  • Unhapipatpong C, Polruang N, Shantavasinkul PC, Julanon N, Numthavaj P, Thakkinstian A. The effect of curcumin supplementation on weight loss and anthropometric indices: an umbrella review and updated meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2023;117(5):1005-1016.
  • Usharani, P., Mateen, A. A., Naidu, M. U., Raju, Y. S., and Chandra, N. Effect of NCB-02, atorvastatin and placebo on endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 8-week study. Drugs R.D. 2008;9(4):243-250.
  • Uthaipaisanwong A, Oranratanaphan S, Musigavong N. Effects of ginger adjunct to the standard prophylaxis on reducing carboplatin and paclitaxel-induced nausea vomiting: a randomized controlled study. Support Care Cancer. 2019.
  • Vafa M, Mohammadi F, Shidfar F, Sormaghi MS, Heidari I, Golestan B, Armiri F. Effects of cinnamon consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and body composition in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Prev Med. 2012 Aug;3(8):531-6.
  • Vahdat Shariatpanahi Z, Mokhtari M, Taleban FA, Alavi F, Salehi Surmaghi MH, Mehrabi Y, Shahbazi S. Effect of enteral feeding with ginger extract in acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Crit Care 2013;28(2):217.e1-6.
  • Valentine, S. P., Le Nedelec, M. J., Menzies, A. R., Scandlyn, M. J., Goodin, M. G., and Rosengren, R. J. Curcumin modulates drug metabolizing enzymes in the female Swiss Webster mouse. Life Sci. 4-11-2006;78(20):2391-2398.
  • Vallianou N, Tsang C, Taghizadeh M, Davoodvandi A, Jafarnejad S. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) supplementation on serum C-reactive protein concentrations: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Complement Ther Med 2019;42:271-8.
  • Van Dau N, Ngoc Ham N, Huy Khac D, and et al. The effects of a traditional drug, tumeric (Curcuma longa), and placebo on the healing of duodenal ulcer. Phytomed 1998;5(1):29-34.
  • van Tilburg MA, Palsson OS, Ringel Y, Whitehead WE. Is ginger effective for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome? A double blind randomized controlled pilot trial. Complement Ther Med 2014;22(1):17-20.
  • Vandersall A, Katta R. Eyelid dermatitis as a manifestation of systemic contact dermatitis to cinnamon. Dermatitis. 2015 Jul-Aug;26(4):189.
  • Vareed, S. K., Kakarala, M., Ruffin, M. T., Crowell, J. A., Normolle, D. P., Djuric, Z., and Brenner, D. E. Pharmacokinetics of curcumin conjugate metabolites in healthy human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(6):1411-1417.
  • Varghese, K., Molnar, P., Das, M., Bhargava, N., Lambert, S., Kindy, M. S., and Hickman, J. J. A new target for amyloid beta toxicity validated by standard and high-throughput electrophysiology. PLoS.One. 2010;5(1):e8643.
  • Varma K, Amalraj A, Divya C, Gopi S. The efficacy of the novel bioavailable curcumin (Cureit) in the management of sarcopenia in healthy elderly subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study. J Med Food 2021;24(1):40-9.
  • Verma, S; Salamone, E, and Goldin, B. Curcumin and genistein, plant natural products, show synergistic inhibitory effects on the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells induced by estrogenic pesticides. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 4-28-1997;233(3):692-696.
  • Verma, S. K., Singh, J., Khamesra, R., and Bordia, A. Effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in man. Indian J Med.Res 1993;98:240-242.
  • Verspohl EJ, Bauer K, Neddermann E. Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum in vivo and in vitro. Phytother Res 2005;19:203-6.
  • Viljoen E, Visser J, Koen N, Musekiwa A. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-associated nausea and vomiting. Nutr J 2014;13:20.
  • Visalyaputra S, Petchpaisit N, Somcharoen K, Choavaratana R. The efficacy of ginger root in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynaecological laparoscopy. Anaesthesia 1998;53:506-10.
  • Vitaglione, P., Barone, Lumaga R., Ferracane, R., Radetsky, I., Mennella, I., Schettino, R., Koder, S., Shimoni, E., and Fogliano, V. Curcumin bioavailability from enriched bread: the effect of microencapsulated ingredients. J Agric.Food Chem 4-4-2012;60(13):3357-3366.
  • Vizzutti, F., Provenzano, A., Galastri, S., Milani, S., Delogu, W., Novo, E., Caligiuri, A., Zamara, E., Arena, U., Laffi, G., Parola, M., Pinzani, M., and Marra, F. Curcumin limits the fibrogenic evolution of experimental steatohepatitis. Lab Invest 2010;90(1):104-115.
  • Voznesens’ka, T. I., Bryzhina, T. M., Sukhina, V. S., Makohon, N. V., and Aleksieieva, I. M. [Effect of NF-kappaB activation inhibitor curcumin on the oogenesis and follicular cell death in immune ovarian failure in mice]. Fiziol.Zh. 2010;56(4):96-101.
  • Vutyavanich T, Kraisarin T, Ruangsri R. Ginger for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97:577-82.
  • Waghmare, P. F., Chaudhari, A. U., Karhadkar, V. M., and Jamkhande, A. S. Comparative evaluation of turmeric and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in prevention of plaque formation and gingivitis: a clinical and microbiological study. J Contemp.Dent Pract. 2011;12(4):221-224.
  • Wan, X. H., Li, Y. W., and Luo, X. P. [Curcumin attenuated the lipid peroxidation and apoptotic liver injury in copper-overloaded rats]. Zhonghua Er.Ke.Za Zhi. 2007;45(8):604-608.
  • Wang Z, Singh A, Jones G, et al. Efficacy and safety of turmeric extracts for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2021 Jan 28;23(2):11. doi: 10.1007/s11926-020-00975-8.
  • Wang Z, Zhang Q, Huang H, Liu Z. The efficacy and acceptability of curcumin for the treatment of depression or depressive symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord 2021;282:242-51.
  • Wang, B. M., Zhai, C. Y., Fang, W. L., Chen, X., Jiang, K., and Wang, Y. M. [The inhibitory effect of curcumin on the proliferation of HT-29 colonic cancer cell induced by deoxycholic acid]. Zhonghua Nei Ke.Za Zhi. 2009;48(9):760-763.
  • Wang, L. Y., Zhang, M., Zhang, C. F., and Wang, Z. T. Alkaloid and sesquiterpenes from the root tuber of Curcuma longa. Yao Xue.Xue.Bao. 2008;43(7):724-727.
  • Wang, Y., Lu, Z., Wu, H., and Lv, F. Study on the antibiotic activity of microcapsule curcumin against foodborne pathogens. Int.J Food Microbiol. 11-30-2009;136(1):71-74.
  • Wansi SL, Nyadjeu P, Ngamga D, et al. Blood pressure lowering effect of the ethanol extract from the stembark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (lauraceae) in rats. Pharmacol online 2007;3:166-76.
  • Wei, S. M., Yan, Z. Z., and Zhou, J. Curcumin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat testis. Fertil.Steril. 2009;91(1):271-277.
  • Weidner MS, Sigwart K. Investigation of the teratogenic potential of a zingiber officinale extract in the rat. Reprod Toxicol 2001;15:75-80..
  • Weisberg, S. P., Leibel, R., and Tortoriello, D. V. Dietary curcumin significantly improves obesity-associated inflammation and diabetes in mouse models of diabesity. Endocrinology 2008;149(7):3549-3558.
  • Wessler, S., Muenzner, P., Meyer, T. F., and Naumann, M. The anti-inflammatory compound curcumin inhibits Neisseria gonorrhoeae-induced NF-kappaB signaling, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and attenuates adhesion in late infection. Biol.Chem. 2005;386(5):481-490.
  • Wichitnithad, W., Jongaroonngamsang, N., Pummangura, S., and Rojsitthisak, P. A simple isocratic HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of curcuminoids in commercial turmeric extracts. Phytochem.Anal. 2009;20(4):314-319.
  • Wigler I, Grotto I, Caspi D, Yaron M. The effects of Zintona EC (a ginger extract) on symptomatic gonarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003;11:783-9.
  • Wilkinson JM. Effect of ginger tea on the fetal development of Sprague-Dawley rats. Reprod Toxicol 2000;14:507-12..
  • Wongcharoen, W., Jai-Aue, S., Phrommintikul, A., Nawarawong, W., Woragidpoonpol, S., Tepsuwan, T., Sukonthasarn, A., Apaijai, N., and Chattipakorn, N. Effects of curcuminoids on frequency of acute myocardial infarction after coronary artery bypass grafting. Am J Cardiol 7-1-2012;110(1):40-44.
  • Wood CD, Manno JE, Wood MJ, et al. Comparison of efficacy of ginger with various antimotion sickness drugs. Clin Res Pr Drug Regul Aff 1988;6:129-36.
  • Wu S, Xiao D. Effect of curcumin on nasal symptoms and airflow in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016;117(6):697-702.e1.
  • Wu, C. X., Wei, X. B., Ding, H., Sun, X., and Cheng, X. M. [Protective effect of effective parts of Zingiber Offecinal on vascular endothelium of the experimental hyperlipidemic rats]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2006;29(8):810-813.
  • Wu, J. C., Lai, C. S., Badmaev, V., Nagabhushanam, K., Ho, C. T., and Pan, M. H. Tetrahydrocurcumin, a major metabolite of curcumin, induced autophagic cell death through coordinative modulation of PI3K/Akt-mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2011;55(11):1646-1654.
  • Wu, K. L., Rayner, C. K., Chuah, S. K., Changchien, C. S., Lu, S. N., Chiu, Y. C., Chiu, K. W., and Lee, C. M. Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans. Eur.J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2008;20(5):436-440.
  • Xu, P. H., Long, Y., Dai, F., and Liu, Z. L. The relaxant effect of curcumin on porcine coronary arterial ring segments. Vascul.Pharmacol 2007;47(1):25-30.
  • Xu, Y., Ku, B. S., Yao, H. Y., Lin, Y. H., Ma, X., Zhang, Y. H., and Li, X. J. Antidepressant effects of curcumin in the forced swim test and olfactory bulbectomy models of depression in rats. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 2005;82(1):200-206.
  • Xu, Y., Ku, B. S., Yao, H. Y., Lin, Y. H., Ma, X., Zhang, Y. H., and Li, X. J. The effects of curcumin on depressive-like behaviors in mice. Eur.J Pharmacol 7-25-2005;518(1):40-46.
  • Yamahara J, Rong HQ, Iwamoto M, and et al. Active components of ginger exhibiting anti-serotonergic action. Phytotherapy Res 1989;3(2):70-71.
  • Yamahara, J., Huang, Q. R., Li, Y. H., Xu, L., and Fujimura, H. Gastrointestinal motility enhancing effect of ginger and its active constituents. Chem.Pharm.Bull.(Tokyo) 1990;38(2):430-431.
  • Yamahara, J., Mochizuki, M., Rong, H. Q., Matsuda, H., and Fujimura, H. The anti-ulcer effect in rats of ginger constituents. J Ethnopharmacol. 1988;23(2-3):299-304.
  • Yamprasert R, Chanvimalueng W, Mukkasombut N, Itharat A. Ginger extract versus Loratadine in the treatment of allergic rhinitis: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020;20(1):116.
  • Yan, Y. D., Kim, D. H., Sung, J. H., Yong, C. S., and Choi, H. G. Enhanced oral bioavailability of docetaxel in rats by four consecutive days of pre-treatment with curcumin. Int J Pharm 10-31-2010;399(1-2):116-120.
  • Yang YC, Lee HS, Lee SE, et al. Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil compounds and related compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anopluar: Pediculicidae). Int J Parasitol 2005;35(14):1595-600.
  • Yang YS, Su YF, Yang HW, Lee YH, Chou JI, Ueng KC. Lipid-lowering effects of curcumin in patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2014;28(12):1770-7.
  • Yang, X., Thomas, D. P., Zhang, X., Culver, B. W., Alexander, B. M., Murdoch, W. J., Rao, M. N., Tulis, D. A., Ren, J., and Sreejayan, N. Curcumin inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell function and injury-induced neointima formation. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 2006;26(1):85-90.
  • Yano, Y., Satomi, M., and Oikawa, H. Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Int.J Food Microbiol. 8-15-2006;111(1):6-11.
  • Yao, J., Zhang, Q., Min, J., He, J., and Yu, Z. Novel enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) potential inhibitors of Escherichia coli from Chinese medicine monomers. Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett. 1-1-2010;20(1):56-59.
  • Yao, Q. H., Wang, D. Q., Cui, C. C., Yuan, Z. Y., Chen, S. B., Yao, X. W., Wang, J. K., and Lian, J. F. Curcumin ameliorates left ventricular function in rabbits with pressure overload: inhibition of the remodeling of the left ventricular collagen network associated with suppression of myocardial tumor necrosis factor-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression. Biol.Pharm Bull. 2004;27(2):198-202.
  • Yeh, C. H., Chen, T. P., Wu, Y. C., Lin, Y. M., and Jing, Lin P. Inhibition of NFkappaB activation with curcumin attenuates plasma inflammatory cytokines surge and cardiomyocytic apoptosis following cardiac ischemia/reperfusion. J Surg.Res 5-1-2005;125(1):109-116.
  • Yeh, C. H., Lin, Y. M., Wu, Y. C., and Lin, P. J. Inhibition of NF-kappa B activation can attenuate ischemia/reperfusion-induced contractility impairment via decreasing cardiomyocytic proinflammatory gene up-regulation and matrix metalloproteinase expression. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2005;45(4):301-309.
  • Yeon, K. Y., Kim, S. A., Kim, Y. H., Lee, M. K., Ahn, D. K., Kim, H. J., Kim, J. S., Jung, S. J., and Oh, S. B. Curcumin produces an antihyperalgesic effect via antagonism of TRPV1. J Dent.Res 2010;89(2):170-174.
  • Yin J, Wei L, Wang N, Li X, Miao M. Efficacy and safety of adjuvant curcumin therapy in ulcerative colitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ethnopharmacol 2022;289:115041.
  • Yip YB, Tam AC. An experimental study on the effectiveness of massage with aromatic ginger and orange essential oil for moderate-to-severe knee pain among the elderly in Hong Kong. Complement Ther Med. 2008;16:131-8.
  • Yiu, W. F., Kwan, P. L., Wong, C. Y., Kam, T. S., Chiu, S. M., Chan, S. W., and Chan, R. Attenuation of fatty liver and prevention of hypercholesterolemia by extract of Curcuma longa through regulating the expression of CYP7A1, LDL-receptor, HO-1, and HMG-CoA reductase. J Food Sci 2011;76(3):H80-H89.
  • Yongwatana K, Harinwan K, Chirapongsathorn S, et al. Curcuma longa Linn Versus Omeprazole in Treatment of Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021.
  • Young HY, Liao JC, Chang YS, et al. Synergistic effect of ginger and nifedipine on human platelet aggregation: a study in hypertensive patients and normal volunteers. Am J Chin Med. 2006;34:545-51.
  • Yousefi O, Ghazi-Mirsaiid S, Azami P, et al. Effect of a Boswellia and Ginger mixture on the memory dysfunction of the mild traumatic brain injury patients: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Bull Emerg Trauma. 2022;10(4):157-64. doi: 10.30476/BEAT.2022.97106.1400.
  • Yu JJ, Pei LB, Zhang Y, Wen ZY, Yang JL. Chronic supplementation of curcumin enhances the efficacy of antidepressants in major depressive disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015;35(4):406-10.
  • Yu, Y. M. and Lin, H. C. Curcumin prevents human aortic smooth muscle cells migration by inhibiting of MMP-9 expression. Nutr.Metab Cardiovasc.Dis. 2010;20(2):125-132.
  • Yu, Y., Hu, S. K., and Yan, H. [The study of insulin resistance and leptin resistance on the model of simplicity obesity rats by curcumin]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 2008;42(11):818-822.
  • Yu, Y., Zick, S., Li, X., Zou, P., Wright, B., and Sun, D. Examination of the pharmacokinetics of active ingredients of ginger in humans. AAPS.J. 2011;13(3):417-426.
  • Yu, Z. F., Kong, L. D., and Chen, Y. Antidepressant activity of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;83(1-2):161-165.
  • Yuan F, Wu W, Ma L, et al. Turmeric and curcuminiods ameliorate disorders of glycometabolism among subjects with metabolic diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pharmacol Res 2022;177:106121.
  • Yuan, H. Y., Kuang, S. Y., Zheng, X., Ling, H. Y., Yang, Y. B., Yan, P. K., Li, K., and Liao, D. F. Curcumin inhibits cellular cholesterol accumulation by regulating SREBP-1/caveolin-1 signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2008;29(5):555-563.
  • Yuan, K., Weng, Q., Zhang, H., Xiong, J., and Xu, G. Application of capillary zone electrophoresis in the separation and determination of the curcuminoids in urine. J Pharm Biomed.Anal. 6-1-2005;38(1):133-138.
  • Yuan, K., Weng, Q., Zhang, H., Xiong, J., Yang, J., and Xu, G. [Determination of curcumin in urine by capillary electrophoresis]. Se.Pu. 2004;22(6):609-612.
  • Yue, G. G., Cheng, S. W., Yu, H., Xu, Z. S., Lee, J. K., Hon, P. M., Lee, M. Y., Kennelly, E. J., Deng, G., Yeung, S. K., Cassileth, B. R., Fung, K. P., Leung, P. C., and Lau, C. B. The role of turmerones on curcumin transportation and P-glycoprotein activities in intestinal Caco-2 cells. J Med Food 2012;15(3):242-252.
  • Yun, S. S., Kim, S. P., Kang, M. Y., and Nam, S. H. Inhibitory effect of curcumin on liver injury in a murine model of endotoxemic shock. Biotechnol.Lett. 2010;32(2):209-214.
  • Zahid, Ashraf M., Hussain, M. E., and Fahim, M. Antiatherosclerotic effects of dietary supplementations of garlic and turmeric: Restoration of endothelial function in rats. Life Sci. 7-8-2005;77(8):837-857.
  • Zahmatkash M, Vafaeenasab MR. Comparing analgesic effects of a topical herbal mixed medicine with salicylate in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011;14:715-9.
  • Zareie A, Sahebkar A, Khorvash F, Bagherniya M, Hasanzadeh A, Askari G. Effect of cinnamon on migraine attacks and inflammatory markers: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res 2020;34(11):2945-52.
  • Zegota Z, Gozdzik J, Glogowska-Szelag J. Prospective, multicenter evaluation of a polyherbal supplement alongside standard-of-care treatment for mild knee osteoarthritis. Adv Orthop. 2021;2021:5589597.
  • Zeng L, Yang T, Yang K, et al. Efficacy and safety of curcumin and Curcuma longa extract in the treatment of arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial. Front Immunol 2022;13:891822.
  • Zeng, Y., Qiu, F., Takahashi, K., Liang, J., Qu, G., and Yao, X. New sesquiterpenes and calebin derivatives from Curcuma longa. Chem.Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 2007;55(6):940-943.
  • Zhang F, Altorki NK, Mestre JR, et al. Curcumin inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 transcription in bile acid- and phorbol ester-treated human gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis 1999;20:445-51.
  • Zhang S, DiMango E, Zhu Y, Saroya TK, Emala CW, Sang S. Pharmacokinetics of Gingerols, Shogaols, and Their Metabolites in Asthma Patients. J Agric Food Chem 2022;70(31):9674-9683.
  • Zhang T, He Q, Liu Y, Chen Z, Hu H. Efficacy and Safety of Curcumin Supplement on Improvement of Insulin Resistance in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021;2021:4471944.
  • Zhang, D. P., Qiu, H., Zhuang, Y., and Meng, F. Q. [The effect of curcumin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats]. Zhonghua Jie.He.He.Hu Xi.Za Zhi. 2007;30(3):197-201.
  • Zhang, G. F., Yang, Z. B., Wang, Y., Yang, W. R., Jiang, S. Z., and Gai, G. S. Effects of ginger root (Zingiber officinale) processed to different particle sizes on growth performance, antioxidant status, and serum metabolites of broiler chickens. Poult.Sci 2009;88(10):2159-2166.
  • Zhang, J., Jinnai, S., Ikeda, R., Wada, M., Hayashida, S., and Nakashima, K. A simple HPLC-fluorescence method for quantitation of curcuminoids and its application to turmeric products. Anal.Sci. 2009;25(3):385-388.
  • Zhang, L., Fiala, M., Cashman, J., Sayre, J., Espinosa, A., Mahanian, M., Zaghi, J., Badmaev, V., Graves, M. C., Bernard, G., and Rosenthal, M. Curcuminoids enhance amyloid-beta uptake by macrophages of Alzheimer’s disease patients. J Alzheimers.Dis. 2006;10(1):1-7.
  • Zhang, M., Deng, C., Zheng, J., Xia, J., and Sheng, D. Curcumin inhibits trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis in rats by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Int.Immunopharmacol. 2006;6(8):1233-1242.
  • Zhang, W., Liu, D., Wo, X., Zhang, Y., Jin, M., and Ding, Z. Effects of Curcuma Longa on proliferation of cultured bovine smooth muscle cells and on expression of low density lipoprotein receptor in cells. Chin Med.J (Engl) 1999;112(4):308-311.
  • Zhang, W., Tan, T. M., and Lim, L. Y. Impact of curcumin-induced changes in P-glycoprotein and CYP3A expression on the pharmacokinetics of peroral celiprolol and midazolam in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007;35(1):110-115.
  • Zhou, G., Wang, J. F., Niu, J. Z., Lu, Y. S., Chen, W. T., Li, Z. H., and Lin, T. X. [Experimental study on protective effects of curcumin on exaggerated extracellular matrix accumulation of pulmonary fibrosis rats]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31(7):570-573.
  • Zhu J, Chen H, Song Z, Wang X, Sun Z. Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Evidence-Based Complement Alt Med 2018.
  • Zhu LN, Mei X, Zhang ZG, Xie YP, Lang F. Curcumin intervention for cognitive function in different types of people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytother Res. 2019;33(3):524-533.
  • Zick, S. M., Djuric, Z., Ruffin, M. T., Litzinger, A. J., Normolle, D. P., Alrawi, S., Feng, M. R., and Brenner, D. E. Pharmacokinetics of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol and conjugate metabolites in healthy human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(8):1930-1936.
  • Zick, S. M., Ruffin, M. T., Lee, J., Normolle, D. P., Siden, R., Alrawi, S., and Brenner, D. E. Phase II trial of encapsulated ginger as a treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Support.Care Cancer 2009;17(5):563-572.
  • Zick, S. M., Turgeon, D. K., Vareed, S. K., Ruffin, M. T., Litzinger, A. J., Wright, B. D., Alrawi, S., Normolle, D. P., Djuric, Z., and Brenner, D. E. Phase II study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colon mucosa in people at normal risk for colorectal cancer. Cancer Prev.Res.(Phila) 2011;4(11):1929-1937.
  • Zobeiri M, Parvizi F, Shahpiri Z, et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness of cinnamon oil soft capsule in patients with functional dyspepsia: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021;2021:6634115.
  • Zou, Shuai, Tao, Heng, Chang, Ya-Ning – Characterization of antioxidant activity and analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids in linden honey. Food Science and Technology . ISSN 1678-457X

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION

This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on our website. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

3 reviews for Turmeric, Cinnamon & Ginger Honey

  1. John Thompson

    I recently bought this honey at the market and I was a dubious about the claims that it could ease my arthritis. I was wrong – what a honey. I use one spoon a day and I got releif almost immediately. I cannot recommend this honey more highly. Keep up the good work.

  2. Maria Domvas

    I bought this honey because I suffer from arthritis in my left hand. I spoke to the gentleman at the market who advised me on how to use it – a spoonful twice a day and to spread a little bit on my hand. I have never known something work so well and so fast. In just one day, I could move my hand more freely. I have now bought my 3rd jar of this honey.
    I love the fact that it tastes good and that it only contains natural ingredients. I love it.

  3. Rachel Mann

    I bought your lovely honey at the market and was surprised by how good it was. I was lucky enough to meet you again at the food fest where I bought some more and you asked for feedback here.
    This honey works really well – I am pain free for the first time in many years and I think the honey is helping in other ways. Please try it if you suffer from arthritis as it is truly wonderful.

Add a review

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Shopping Basket
Select your currency
GBP Pound sterling
EUR Euro
Scroll to Top